Globally, women account for about half of all international migrants and about half of the 21 million immigrants from Latin America and the Caribbean in the US are women. In that region women play a central role as a sender/recipients and managers of remittances. Research in Guatemala has shown that 63 per cent of main remittance recipients are women, while in Colombia; they make up 70 per cent of the recipients. In the case of Mexico a recent remittance study showed that women are the main group benefiting from remittances receiving almost three out of four remittances from the US.
The return of irregular migrants, including unsuccessful asylum seekers, is a fundamental aspect of any immigration policy. It removes people who have no right to remain thus reinforcing credibility; frees up the asylum and immigration system for those who are entitled to enter and stay; deters further irregular entrants and stayers; and reduces costs associated with detention and social welfare.
At the same time any return programme should respect the rights and dignity of the migrants concerned. International law proscribes sending people back to a country where their life may be at risk, for example. Equally, forced return carries significant political, social and financial costs. Ideally irregular migrants should therefore return home voluntarily.
The Migration and Remittances team (DECPG) is pleased to invite you to the following seminar:
Special Topic: Financing for Development
Wednesday, April 22, 2015
Room C 8-150
World Bank C building
1225 Connecticut Avenue, N.W.
Remittances are the shining light of development policy. While debate rages in austerity-hit Western capitals about spending on aid, remittances cost tax-payers nothing. Remittances to developing countries are worth nearly half a trillion dollars – that’s three times the level of aid – and they’re rising fast, quadrupling since the turn of the century. And remittances work. It’s hard to imagine a more efficient targeting system than people sending money home to their own families and the facts bear that out; remittances are linked to improved economic, health and education outcomes. And as if those benefits weren’t enough, remittances are a huge driver of financial inclusion, acting as a gateway to banking for the people sending and receiving them.
Experts agree that the institutional frameworks for addressing migration, displacement and relocation in the context of environmental change are not well articulated. There is overall a lack of understanding of good practices in planned relocations and preventive resettlement. Moreover, most of the experiences studied so far have proved quite negative. Appropriate governance responses need to distinguish between rapid- and slow-onset events and take into account the socio-economic and demographic characteristics of the community involved. There is also need for institutional frameworks capable of providing support to those who are not able or willing to leave the affected region and, therefore, remain behind. A symposium organized by KNOMAD’s Thematic Working Group (TWG) on Environmental Change and Migration in 2014 concluded: “a mapping exercise that identifies effective mechanisms for cooperation and coordination among different ministries and agencies would provide guidance to governments and international organizations as they move ahead in developing adaptation strategies involving human mobility.”
Call for Proposals
The TWG on Environmental Change and Migration plans to commission one or more papers that improve understanding of existing and new institutional frameworks addressing internal and international migration in the context of environmental change. The papers will be distributed widely, including for circulation at upcoming events such as the Conference of Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Global Forum on Migration and Development, and the World Humanitarian Summit.
Table 1: Migrants and outward remittances in GCC countries, 2013