Here is a curated round-up of recent research on education in low- and middle-income countries, with a few findings from high-income countries that I found relevant. All are from the last few months, since my last round-up.
If I’m missing recent articles that you’ve found useful, please add them in the comments!
60-90% of marine litter is plastic?
Did you know that each year about 8 million tons of plastic ends up in the oceans?
Did you know that each year, over 4 billion coffee cups end up in landfills?
Did you know that up to 51 trillion micro plastic particles are already in our oceans?
Did you know that by 2050, an estimated 99% of seabirds will have ingested plastic?Why do these numbers matter? With increased human activity both on land and seas, and unsustainable production and consumption habits, our oceans and other world’s bodies of water are getting more and more polluted. These numbers matter, because not only are the oceans a source of protein to millions of people worldwide, they also produce more than half of the oxygen in the atmosphere. According to some estimates by year 2050 oceans will be populated more by plastic than fish, if the current trend of plastic dumping continues. This is unacceptable.
In response to this global environmental problem, this month, UNEP launched an international campaign called “CleanSeas.” Committed to eliminate major sources of marine littering, waste created by humans that has been discharged into the coastal or marine environment, by the year 2022, UNEP is urging governments, private sector, and consumers to reduce production and usage of micro plastics and single-use plastics.
Considering Bangladesh’s lack of development and a predominantly rural context, it would have been difficult to imagine even a few years ago that an elderly widow living in a remote corner of this impoverished South Asian country could be receiving money from her son living in Dubai sitting right at home or making petty payments through her mobile phone. Not any more, though.
Bangladesh has recently emerged as a curious case of digital innovation to widen coverage and reach remote pockets. The country reached the lower middle income country status in 2015, and has showcased the potential of combating rural poverty through inclusive digital financial services.
This has proved to be an effective weapon to eliminate poverty and secure the sustainable development goals (SDGs) while the country advances towards Vision 2021 — lifting millions of Bangladeshis out of poverty. Innovation and digitization will surely set Bangladesh firmly on the path to becoming a middle-income country. Although ambitious, it is exactly what both the government and private sector are working towards.
Access to the formal financial system remains a challenge for the rural poor in Bangladesh even though the central bank announced a plan for inclusive digital financial programmes in 2015.
The story of a country’s economic development is often told through the lens of new roads, factories, power lines, and ports. However, it can also be told through the voices of every day heroes, individuals who have taken action to improve their lives and those around them. In this blog series, the World Bank Group, in partnership with the Ivorian newspaper Fraternité Matin and blogger Edith Brou, tells the stories of those individuals who, with a boost from a Bank project, have set economic development in motion in their communities.
“Preparing kabato used to be a grueling task,” explains Salimata Koné, a resident in the village of Paris Léona, located some 500 kilometers to the north west of Abidjan. The women in the village usually had to toil away with mortars and pestles to produce this corn meal that fed the entire family. This laborious activity ended when Salimata Koné and other women in the village participated in the budget discussions led by the village chief, providing them with the opportunity to acquire a mill in their community. Since then, life has been much easier.
When we think of agriculture and food, we think of a farmer working in a rural area producing food for consumption and selling some surplus. With growing urbanization and increasing demand for food, food system has moved away from just agricultural production. It involves aggregating, value addition, processing, logistics, food preparation, restaurants and other related services. Many enterprises from small to large are part of the enterprise ecosystem. The potential for new jobs for youth who start and are also employed by their enterprises is significant. The Africa Agriculture Innovation Network (AAIN) has developed a business agenda targeting establishment of at least 108 incubators in 54 African countries in the next 5 years focusing on youth and women among other actors. At least 600,000 jobs will be created and 100,000 start-ups and SMEs produced through incubation and 60,000 students exposed to learn as you earn model and mentored to start new businesses.
In recent past, there have been many innovations in areas of technology, extension, ICT, education, and incubation leading to new generation of enterprises and enterprise clusters resulting in the creation of good quality and new jobs in agriculture and food systems. A key challenge in the future is how we create more and better jobs in the agriculture and food system value chain. One of the major requirements for creating more jobs is a radical change in the way youth are taught agriculture and entrepreneurship. The skills required for a modern agriculture and food system are of a higher order and need to be upgraded significantly.
It’s 3/14, also known as Pi Day – a mathematics holiday to celebrate the irrational, transcendental number we learned in school, for the most part, to calculate the circumference or area of circles. While there are a number of fulfilling Pi(e) related activities you can indulge in, from feasting on scrumptious pies to chasing down the value of Pi (good luck!), it is also an apt moment to turn attention to where children across the world stand in mathematics achievement and other learning outcomes.
Photo Credit: Flickr user highwaysagency
Infrastructure often makes headlines – and the sentiment is not always positive. Major projects must navigate a minefield of potential problems. One that is frequently overlooked is how the local community will react to the physical and environmental disruption that comes with major construction projects.
Achieving consensus and winning the ‘hearts and minds’ of stakeholders and affected communities for the construction of major infrastructure schemes can be challenging, but it is essential to deliver a successful project that benefits everyone in the community.
Gary Sargent, an engagement director from CJ Associates, is involved in a two-year consultation program for a major highway scheme in the United Kingdom and helped the authority design an integrated stakeholder engagement, communications and consultation strategy.
Here is Sargent’s advice:
Edible drones filled with food, water or medicine could soon become indispensable in humanitarian emergencies by delivering live-saving supplies to remote areas hit by natural disasters or conflict, their designers said on Monday.
With 50 kg (110 lb) of food stocked inside its compartments, each drone costing 150 pounds ($187) would be able to deliver enough supplies to feed up to 50 people per day, they said.
The frame of the prototype version of the drone - called Pouncer - is made of wood but the designers are planning to use edible materials in the next version.
"Food can be component to build things," Nigel Gifford, an ex-army catering officer and founder of UK-based Windhorse Aerospace, the company behind the design, told the Thomson Reuters Foundation.
"You fly (the drone) and then eat it," he said in a phone interview.
With up to 40 km (25 miles) reach, the drone can be launched from an aircraft or catapulted from the ground with an accuracy of about 7 metres (23 ft), giving it an advantage over air drops - often used as a last resort in emergencies.
"In combat zones like we have in Aleppo or Mosul nothing will work except what we have," Gifford said.
"With parachuted air drops the problem is you can't guarantee where the loads will land.
"In Aleppo we could have put aid straight into some of the streets and we could have done that out of the sight of ISIS (Islamic State)."