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How can Romania’s cities strengthen implementation capacity for greater development impact?

Marcel Ionescu-Heroiu's picture

The performance by new members of the European Union (EU) in achieving greater development impact and faster convergence is a key concern at the EU level. EU funds can contribute to the modernization of public infrastructure and public administration, and they are also estimated to have a net positive impact on the economy. A World Bank report, prepared for the Ministry of Regional Development and Public Administration, highlights that for every €1 invested in public infrastructure projects in Romania, an additional €2.04 are generated by the economy – a relatively high impact.
Romania’s absorption performance leaves much to be desired; with the exception of Croatia, Romania has registered the worst level of absorption in the Union when compared to other new member states.

Weekly wire: The global forum

Roxanne Bauer's picture

World of NewsThese are some of the views and reports relevant to our readers that caught our attention this week.

The Practice and Craft of Multistakeholder Governance: The case of global internet policymaking
Global Partners Digital

In recent years, multistakeholderism has become something of a catchphrase in discussions of Internet governance. This follows decades of attempts to identify a system of governance that would be sufficiently flexible, yet at the same time effective enough to manage the decentralized, non-hierarchical global network that is today used by more than 3 billion people. […]In this paper, we contribute to this ongoing discussion by examining current and actual instances of governance and governance bodies that at least approximate the ideal of multistakeholderism. Part I, below, examines seven institutions and fora that serve as real-world examples of multistakeholder governance on the Internet. In Part II, we assess these examples to present a number of lessons learned and more general reflections that can help us better understand the state of—and prospects for—multistakeholder governance of the Internet today.

Facts We Can Believe In: How to make fact-checking better
Legatum Institute

New media and the information revolution have not only empowered access to information but also fuelled the spread of disinformation. Such is the scale of the problem that the World Economic Forum has defined  misinformation as one of the world’s most urgent problems. Corrupt, neo-authoritarian rulers have become skilled at using disinformation to confuse their opposition, break down trust and fracture civil society. Increasingly, disinformation is used as a weapon by closed societies to attack more open ones. Inside democracies whole segments of society are pulled into alternative realities which are manipulated by violent extremists and dominated by conspiracy theories. Some commentators have even speculated that we are entering a “post-fact” age where political candidates reinvent reality on a whim. This poses a serious danger to deliberative democracy and good governance: if we cannot agree on the facts, debate and decision-making break down.

When does pollution policy work? The water quality and infant mortality impacts of Mehta vs. Union of India

Quy-Toan Do's picture
India’s rivers are heavily polluted. According to official estimates, 302 of 445 river stretches fail to meet even bathing criteria (Central Pollution Control Board [CPCB], 2014). This is known to have a heavy disease burden: each year, 37.7 million Indians are affected by waterborne diseases, 73 million working days are lost, and 1.5 million children are estimated to die of diarrhea alone (Water Aid, 2008). 

Is there a connection between PPPs, climate change, and life insurance? Turns out there is.

David Lawrence's picture

Photo Credit: United Nations

Public-private partnerships fit well into many sectors and industries, most obviously infrastructure and social services. But I never connected PPPs to the life insurance sector until I read a recent online interview with Andreas Gruber, the Chief Investment Officer of Allianz, a German insurance and asset management company. In the interview, Gruber gives a lucid assessment of PPPs and why they are important to Allianz.

Procuring Social Impact

Cristina Navarrete Moreno's picture
Governments around the world, especially in economies such as Australia, Canada, South Korea, and the United Kingdom, are discovering how buying from a social enterprise is one of the easiest and most effective ways of generating social value that can help break the cycle of poverty and improve social cohesion. Through the powerful economic force of public procurement, goods and services are bought from social enterprises with a strong track record of delivering added social value.

How can countries take advantage of the fourth industrial revolution?

Victor Mulas's picture

The economy is in a restructuring process. Technology-led transformations are no longer limited to technology-related sectors and are beginning to affect structural sectors, including manufacturing, retailing, transportation and construction. Disruptions of business models are surging from a fragmented network of entrepreneurs and innovators. Cognitive skills are increasingly being replaced by technology-led productivity, affecting labor supply in both developing and developed countries. In turn, creativity and social skills are becoming more important and more valuable than ever before. This process has been called the Fourth Industrial Revolution.

Countries that are less prepared to adapt to these structural changes will suffer in their competitiveness. As much as 80 percent of the productivity gap between developed and emerging economies can be explained by the lag in transitioning to technology-led changes from previous economic restructuring processes (for example, the 18th-  and 20th-century industrial revolutions). Automation is reducing the cost of traditional labor-intense industries (reducing costs relative to labor by 40 percent to 50 percent since 1990), shifting the cost structures that benefited emerging economies. Trade is shifting increasingly to digital goods and services. Knowledge-intensive flows of trade are already growing about 30 percent faster than capital-  and labor-intensive trade flows. Jobs are also being affected, with routine cognitive functions being affected the most, while providers of intellectual and physical capital benefitting disproportionately. 

There are also opportunities stemming from this widespread diffusion of technology and transformational changes. Entrepreneurship and innovation is becoming affordable and de-localized. The innovation model of large capital-intense laboratories (e.g., Bell Labs) is not the most effective one anymore. Instead, open innovation (the process whereby large firms co-create innovation with entrepreneurs and other actors, instead of having an internal process) and innovation emerging from startups are increasing. Tech startup ecosystems have emerged in cities worldwide, in both emerging and developed economies, disrupting traditional business and creating new industries. This results in local innovation and business models that can be appropriated by the domestic economies. These ecosystems also generate new sources of jobs emerging from the structural changes produced by technology.

Who is poor in Pakistan today? Raising the basic standard of well-being in a changing society

Ghazala Mansuri's picture
Photo credit: Visual News Associates / World Bank

Over 80 percent of Pakistanis consistently report that their economic wellbeing has either deteriorated or remained the same. Only 20 percent, disproportionately concentrated in the very top of the distribution, feel that they are better off and similarly small numbers believe that economic conditions have improved for their locality. If we took a poll today, it is possible that many of you would say that extreme poverty has risen rather than fallen.

But in fact, the national data tells a completely different story! According to the national poverty line set in 2001, Pakistan has seen an exceptional decline in poverty—falling from nearly 35 percent in 2001 to less than 10 percent by 2013-14. Moreover, these gains were not concentrated among those close to the poverty line. Even the poorest 5 percent of the population saw an improvement in living standards.

Judith Tendler and learning from ‘good government’

Suvojit Chattopadhyay's picture

On 24th July 2016, Judith Tendler, former Professor at the Department of Urban studies and Planning at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Boston, passed away. She was 77. A Ph.D holder from Columbia University, Judith Tendler spent several years at the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) before a long career as a Professor in MIT. A significant share of Prof. Tendler’s work focused on the Americas, but she also studied South Asia and parts of Africa over her long career.

Prof Tendler’s book: ‘Good Government in the Tropics’ (1997) is one of the most influential books in the field of international development — an essential reading for students of governance and public policy studies. In the book, Prof Tendler and her research associates studied four cases of successful government in Ceara, a relatively poor state in north-eastern Brazil. In each of the cases, the government at different levels played an effective role, facilitating and brokering relationships, and submitting itself to mechanisms which could be used to hold themselves accountable. Those were rare, but rich, examples of ‘good government’.

These cases highlighting the achievements of ‘good governments’ challenged the dominant pessimistic thinking about governance in the so-called ‘third world’. Prof Tendler argued that much of the advice from international development agencies to developing countries was based on an analysis of poor performance of the public sector and governments. This resulted in a tendency to ‘import’ good practices from the successful developed countries, as well as a resistance to looking deeply into poor countries to identify variations in performance. In many ways Prof Tendler consistently challenged the pre-suppositions that development agencies and policy advisors nurtured and which, as a result, shaped the advice they dispensed into narrow straitjackets often unfit for the context in which they were to be applied.

End Poverty Day: Spreading the word through sport

Boris Ciobanu's picture
The first day of October turned out to be quite nice in Chisinau, despite the dismal weather forecast that had threatened low temperatures and rain showers.

On this bright, sunny Saturday, a Moldovan charity held its traditional fall soccer tournament for local and international organizations, businesses, and diplomatic missions. The purpose of the tournament is a noble one – to collect funds for palliative care services to children and adults suffering from incurable and life-limiting illnesses.

And so the World Bank Moldova soccer team turned up, eager to display our dazzling foot work and dribbling skills (OK, a slight exaggeration, I admit!) A handful of injuries and business trips meant a reduced overall capacity, but that did not deter the rest of us from being determined to win.


The Business of Doing Good: Supporting the Social Enterprise Sector

Elaine Tinsley's picture
When I talk about my work in social entrepreneurship, people often ask, “Why is the World Bank interested in social enterprises?” I let numbers answer the question.
Over one billion people don’t have access to the health services they need, 783 million people live without clean drinking water, and 780 million adults lack basic reading and writing skills. There are too many unserved needs as the bottom of the pyramid and there is just not enough public funding to provide these services.