Thanks for sharing these Oxfam case studies that show an appropriate role for INGOs. The Joint Integrated Local Development Programme (JILDP) implemented by UNDP and UN-Women in Moldova, uses a similar approach to empowerment of the communities by strengthening the capacity of vulnerable populations to engage in local governance decisions. At the same time, the local governments are sensitized to a human rights based approach to governance that recognizes the needs and rights of all in their community regardless of age, gender, religion or ethnicity. These principles were enshrined in the recently adopted National Decentralization Strategy, but changing attitudes and practices at the local level takes time – thus INGOs must help to fill the implementation gap. It is exactly during the decentralization process the people have to demand accountability so that with new actors and new processes the same exclusion does not continue.