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Are cities ready for their increasingly aging populations?

Ashna Mathema's picture
 

Virtually everywhere, the share of “older persons,” aged 60 years or over, is increasing. The number of older people globally is projected to grow from 901 million in 2015 to 1.4 billion in 2030 to 2.1 billion in 2050. In 2015, one in eight people worldwide was 60 or older; in 2030, this number will be one in six people, and by 2050, one in five people.

Aging – and by the same token, aging in cities – is an outcome of increasing longevity and declining birthrates, and is currently more prevalent in wealthier economies. However, between 2015 and 2030, the rate of growth of elderly populations is expected to be highest in Latin America and the Caribbean, followed by Asia and Africa. Not only is this rate likely to exceed that of the developed countries in the past, but it is also likely to occur at much lower levels of national income, and weaker systems of social protection (pensions, social security, etc.)


This demographic shift will have far-reaching social and economic consequences. Societies will not just be older, they will be more active for longer periods of their lives compared to previous generations, and they will function – and need to be understood – differently. Accordingly, it is important to recognize that aging is not a “problem” per se, but that it can become a challenge if the social, physical, economic, and policy environment is not adapted to demographic change. Aging is also changing the way money is spent and, as such, presents a massive opportunity for companies to tap into the “longevity economy” and to harness new innovations and disruptive technologies to increase the autonomy of older people.

From May 21-25, 2018, representatives from 15 cities in 12 countries visited Japan for a Technical Deep Dive on Aging Cities to learn about the fundamental paradigm shifts necessary to ensure that their cities offer a vibrant, productive, and livable environment for all residents, including the elderly.  In this video, Anna Wellenstein (Director, Strategy and Operations), Maitreyi Das (Practice Manager / Global Lead, Social Inclusion) and Phil Karp (Lead Knowledge Management Specialist) discuss the growing importance for cities and countries to understand, plan for, and adapt to the dramatic – but predictable – demographic shift that is occurring globally.

Five ways cities can curb plastic waste

Silpa Kaza's picture

As the world observes World Environment Day this week, we should be mindful that there will be more plastic in the oceans than fish by 2050 if nothing is done, according to the Ellen & MacArthur Foundation.
 
The negative impacts that plastic is having on the environment and human health is profoundly evident:
  • Respiratory issues are increasing because of air pollution from burning plastic.
  • Animal lifespans are shortened because of consuming plastic.
  • Littered plastic is clogging drains and causing floods.
  • And unmanaged plastic is contaminating our precious oceans and waterways…

Building safer, more inclusive, and more resilient cities

Ellen Hamilton's picture
 

Cities are where most people live and most economic activity takes place. Cities bring opportunities, but not equally for all residents. A lack of access, rights, and opportunities for people within cities undermines the positive role cities can play. 


When people cannot find a decent and safe place to live, or are discriminated against because of their race, religion or where they live, or lack the skills, education and transportation needed to find a job to support themselves, something needs to change.

To make cities safer, more inclusive, and more resilient to a range of shocks and stresses, mayors, planners, and other city leaders should support integrated approaches promoting social, economic, and spatial inclusion. City leaders need to carry out this work in close partnership with the communities themselves.

From April 23–27, 2018, representatives from 16 cities in 13 countries visited Japan for a Technical Deep Dive on Safe, Inclusive, and Resilient Cities to learn from one another about improving urban safety, inclusion and resilience. In this video, Jefferson Koije (Mayor of Monrovia, Liberia), Ellen Hamilton (World Bank Lead Urban Specialist), and Phil Karp (World Bank Lead Knowledge Management Officer) discuss how cities can address these crucial aspects of urban resilience. Watch the video to learn more.

“The past is never dead. It’s not even past.” – William Faulkner

Barbara Minguez Garcia's picture
Ponto-cho Alley, Kyoto. (Barbara Minguez Garcia / World Bank, 2016)
Ponto-cho Alley, Kyoto. (Barbara Minguez Garcia / World Bank, 2016)
 

Ponto-cho mapIt is 7:45 p.m. in Ponto-cho, the historic narrow alley at the core of the Japanese city of Kyoto. Close to the Kaburenjo Theater – where still today Geikos and Maikos (Kyoto Geishas) practice their dances and performances – the traditional adjoining buildings with restaurants and shops are full of guests. Local people, tourists, students… On this Saturday in mid-April, the warm weather brings a lot of people to the streets nearby.

At 7:46 p.m., a M 5.1 earthquake strikes. Seven seconds of swaying. It doesn’t cause major damage, but it is enough to spread panic among a group of tourists. Screams, shoving, confusion… drinks spill, candles fall, people rush.

At 7:49 p.m., the fire starts spreading through the old wooden structures, also threatening the historic theater. Access is difficult due to the narrow streets and panicking crowd.

What happens next?

It could be a fire in the Ponto-cho traditional alley. It could be an earthquake shaking the historic center of Kathmandu (Nepal), the archaeological site of Bagan (Myanmar), or the historic town of Amatrice (Italy). It could be Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines or Hurricane Irma in the Caribbean, blasting sites with rain, flooding, and gale-force winds.

Cultural heritage assets around the world are at risk. They are often vulnerable due to their age, as well as previous interventions and restorations made without disaster risk or overall site stability in mind. Heritage sites reflect legacies, traditions, and identities. With all this, they carry a large cultural and emotional value of what could be lost – certainly beyond the traditional calculus of economic losses.

In many cases, it is not possible or advisable to conduct reconstruction on cultural heritage sites post-disaster. Therefore, the essence and soul of a cultural heritage site is at risk of being lost forever, making preparedness and preservation even more critical.

How can we protect these special places and traditions from the threat of natural hazards?

South-South and practitioner-practitioner knowledge exchange: An effective way to share, replicate, and scale up solutions to development challenges

Ede Ijjasz-Vasquez's picture
There is a growing demand from World Bank clients and partners to learn about development solutions from fellow practitioners, particularly those who have faced challenges similar to the ones they are confronting in their own countries.

Whether they take the form of:
  • two-country exchanges through Study Tours or Expert Visits,
  • or multi-country exchanges in the form of Technical Deep Dives,
  • Conferences,
  • or Workshops,
South-South and practitioner-practitioner knowledge exchanges are proving to be a highly effective approach to sharing, replicating, adapting and scaling up successful development solutions and for avoiding repetition of failed approaches.  Practitioner exchanges are particularly effective for sharing “how-to” or tacit knowledge about solutions, as such tips and tricks tend not be fully recorded in written descriptions or case studies.

In addition to growing recognition of the power of knowledge exchange, there is also growing evidence of the importance of good design and of attention to results.

The Art of Knowledge Exchange Guidebook

With this in mind, the World Bank compiled “tips and tricks” drawn from research on knowledge management practice and from the experience of several hundred South-South knowledge exchanges financed by the multi-donor South-South Facility Trust Fund. The resulting guidebook, The Art of Knowledge Exchange, offers a practical, step-by-step framework for design, implementation and monitoring of results-focused knowledge exchange.

With support from the Government of Japan through the Tokyo Development Learning Center, the World Bank’s Social, Urban, Rural, and Resilience Global Practice has recently published a customized version of the guide for practitioners in the urban, social, land, and resilience sectors.
While the guide contains information that is of value to all those involved in knowledge exchange at local, national, regional, and global levels, it is particularly geared to those who are engaged in brokering of knowledge exchange between seekers and providers of knowledge and expertise on development challenges and solutions in the areas of urban and social development, land administration, and resilience.

It includes case studies and examples of successful knowledge exchange initiatives drawn from the experience of World Bank staff, partners such as the Rockefeller Foundation’s 100 Resilient Cities Network and other development practitioners who have successfully integrated knowledge exchange as a part of a larger change process.

In this video, Ede Ijjasz-Vasquez, Senior Director of the Social, Urban, Rural and Resilience Global Practice discusses the new guide with Phil Karp and Hywon Cha Kim from the Practice’s Knowledge Management and Learning team.

How do city leaders get things done? Learning from mayors in Japan

Sameh Wahba's picture
Also available in: 日本語
Also available in: Español | 日本語 
Picture of the Competitive Cities Technical Deep Dive participants enjoying a walk through the Minato Mirai 21 area (with the Cosmo Clock in the background), which aims to concentrate high-value added activities and a high quality of life in an integrated urban core in downtown Yokohama. Photo Credit: TDLC
The task of mayors and city leaders is no longer limited to providing efficient urban services to their citizens. Job creation is at the forefront of the economic development challenge globally.

Cities need jobs and opportunities for their citizens and the means to generate tax revenues to fund projects that meet their populations’ growing demand for basic services. The WBG flagship report on Competitive Cities outlines how creating jobs in urban areas – urgently but also at scale– is essential.
 
In November, 2017, we spent a week with approximately 30 city and national government officials and policymakers from several countries, including Argentina, Chile, Croatia, Egypt, Ethiopia, Malaysia, Philippines, Romania, South Africa, Tunisia and Uganda. These leaders represented diverse cities across the world, all with a common objective – how to make their cities and regions more competitive?

Many were dealing with a fragmented institutional landscape, often with overlapping jurisdictions – necessitating clarity of institutional circuits and processes. Some struggled to coordinate economic development strategies with private sector. Lack of adequate sub-national socio-economic data to drive evidence-based policy making compounded issues. City leaders are not looking for a lesson in theory – but evidence of what works and what doesn’t, and practical, implementable examples of how to get things done.
 
We spent the week as part of a Technical Deep Dive, studying and living the experience of two exceptional Japanese cities - Yokohama and Kobe. These cities have dealt with:
  • population influx,
  • industrialized at a rapid pace,
  • responded to environmental challenges,
  • reached the technological frontier,
  • undergone a housing bubble,
  • and even went through a major disaster (the Kobe earthquake) and recovered from it.

都市のリーダーにできること:日本の事例から学ぶ

Sameh Wahba's picture
Also available in: English
Also available in: Español | 日本語 
コスモクロック21を背景にみなとみらい21地区を歩く「競争力のある都市づくり」実務者研修会合の参加者たち。みなとみらい21地区は、横浜市の中でも付加価値の高い活動が集中し、生活の質の高さに重点をおいた地区となっている。 写真提供:東京開発ラーニングセンター(TDLC)
都市の首長たちの業務を考えるとき、市民に効率的な都市サービスを提供することに加え、雇用創出を行うことは、世界的な経済成長の最優先事項となっています。

こうした中、都市には、市民の雇用と、基礎的なサービスに対応する事業のための税収を生み出す手段が必要になっています。 競争都市に関する世界銀行の主要報告書(2015年発行)では、 早急に大規模な雇用を創出することが不可欠だ と指摘されています。
 
2017年11月 、アルゼンチン、チリ、クロアチア、エジプト、エチオピア、マレーシア、フィリピン、ルーマニア、南アフリカ、チュニジア、ウガンダ等から約30名の都市および国の政府関係者、政策担当者が1週間にわたる「競争力のある都市づくり」実務者研修会合を行いました。世界中の都市を代表する参加者にとって、それぞれの都市や地域が競争力を高める手法を探すことが目的でした。

多くの都市では組織構造の断片化や管轄区域の重複などが起こり、組織内プロセスの透明化が必要となっています。また、経済開発戦略を民間セクターと調整することが困難な都市もあります。根拠に基づく政策課題を推進するための適切な準国家社会経済データの欠如も挙げられます。自治体の首長は、理論上の教訓ではなく、実践的で実現可能な知見を模索しているのです。

日本の横浜市と神戸市で行われた本 実務者研修会合では、都市の競争力に関連し、日本の優れた知見を学ぶことができました。横浜市と 神戸市は特に以下について豊富な知見を有しています。
  • 人口流入
  • 急速な産業化
  • 環境課題への対応
  • 先端技術の取得
  • 住宅バブル
  • 大規模な災害(阪神淡路大震災)と復興

How to manage urban expansion in mega-metropolitan areas?

Philip E. Karp's picture
 


As the world becomes increasingly urbanized, the number of megacities is growing rapidly.

Today there are 37 cities worldwide with populations of greater than 10 million, and 84 with populations greater than five million. More than three quarters of these cities are in developing countries. Together with their surrounding metropolitan areas, these cities produce a sizable portion of the world’s wealth and attract a large share of global talent.

These megacities face a series of common challenges associated with managing urban expansion, density, and livability—in a manner that takes advantage of the benefits of productive agglomerations, while mitigating the disadvantages of such high degrees of congestion and urban density.

Moreover, like other metropolitan areas, megacities face challenges of effectively coordinated planning, infrastructure development, and service delivery across multiple jurisdictions. Indeed, the New Urban Agenda issued at the Habitat III conference in 2016 identified metropolitan planning and management as one of the most critical needs to ensure sustainable urbanization.

From Istanbul to Manila—different fault lines, similar challenges

Elif Ayhan's picture
 “It’s not the mountain we conquer, but ourselves.” This was the response given by Sir Edmond Hillary when asked how he and his companion Tenzing Norgay became the first to summit Mt Everest, when so many before had failed. He believed we could all overcome our biggest challenge simply by deciding to act.

Is it possible for the same sentiment to be applied by government leaders – leaders who have the privilege and responsibility to preside over some of the world’s largest and most dynamic cities, especially those that share a common challenge in terms of seismic risk? Metro Manila, the megacity of the Philippines, the seat of government, and the engine of the national economy, has been destroyed numerous times over the last 500 hundred years by earthquakes, and currently sits upon a fault that is overdue to move. Istanbul, with world-class cultural heritage sites treasured by all, also sits near major fault lines expected to move any day. Tokyo and Wellington, the heart of government, culture, and history, also share exposed locations close to major fault lines.

In Wellington, decades of work – including the current Get Ready week! – have aimed to prepare the city for the next “big one”; but compared to the burgeoning megacities of Manila, Tokyo, or Istanbul, it is a small hill to conquer. How do you prepare these megacities with population of up to 15 million people? How do you climb the mountain of needs to build resilience? According to Sir Hillary, the answer is simple, you need to take the decision to accomplish something extraordinary.

In September 2017, the World Bank and the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR) through the Japan-World Bank Program for Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Management in Developing Countries supported a knowledge exchange between Turkey and the Philippines focused on the challenge of building seismic resilience in megacities with high urbanization. For the World Bank, it was clear from the start that seismic risk is a priority on the Urban Resilience Agenda, when Johannes Zutt was able to explain to the visiting delegation the technical details of how base isolation is used to protect critical hospitals in Istanbul. The delegation saw impressive progress made by Turkey and Istanbul, from revised institutional frameworks, strengthened preparedness and response capabilities, and retrofitted schools and hospitals to adapted municipal e-services that ensure that the construction of resilient new buildings are approved fast and with the right safety checks. While massive seismic risk still exists within Istanbul, visible and concrete actions are also underway to improve the safety of its citizens.
 
 

 

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