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الكوارث الطبيعية ليست سوى جزء ضئيل من المخاطر التي تهدد مدن الشرق الأوسط وشمال أفريقيا

Ede Ijjasz-Vasquez's picture
Also available in: English | Français
 

ملحوظة: هذا الفيديو متاح باللغة الإنجليزية فقط

يتزايد الاعتراف بأهمية سياسات المرونة في المناطق الحضرية في العديد من دول العالم باعتبارها سمة رئيسية لنظام حضري فعّال. وغالباً ما تتركز المناقشات الدائرة حول المرونة والقدرة على التكيف مع الكوارث التي تسببها المخاطر الطبيعية. غير أن المدن تتعرض أيضاً بشكل منتظم  لصدمات وضغوط أخرى عديدة غير هذه الكوارث. ولا تختلف المدن

Les catastrophes naturelles sont la partie émergée de l’iceberg au Moyen-Orient et d’Afrique du Nord

Ede Ijjasz-Vasquez's picture
Also available in: English | العربية
 

De plus en plus, la résilience fait partie des attributs jugés essentiels d’un système urbain efficace. Souvent, les discussions autour de cette question tournent autour des catastrophes liées aux risques naturels. Or, les villes subissent d’autres formes de chocs et de stress. Celles de la région du Moyen-Orient et de l’Afrique du Nord (MENA) n’y échappent pas et sont au moins autant, si ce n’est plus, exposées à un vaste ensemble de chocs.

India: How to help communities break the vicious "disaster-poverty" cycle

Ede Ijjasz-Vasquez's picture
 

Natural disasters push the near poor to below the poverty line & contribute to more persistent and severe poverty, creating poverty traps. Impacts on their livelihood pushes them further down the poverty line and as they own few assets it is very difficult for them to break this cycle.
Poor are caught up in and disaster-poverty vicious circle- are more likely to reside in hazardous locations and in substandard housing exposing them more to disasters. Poor households in disasters use harmful coping strategies, such as reducing expenditures on food, health, & education or increasing incomes by sending children to work.

Disasters due to natural hazards are just the tip of the iceberg in MENA cities

Ede Ijjasz-Vasquez's picture
Also available in: Français | العربية
 

Resilience is increasingly recognized as a key attribute of an effective urban system. Discussions on resilience often center around disasters caused by natural hazards. However, cities are increasingly exposed to multiple shocks and stresses beyond disasters. Cities in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) are no different and are equally if not more vulnerable to a large set of shocks.

How can Bamako tackle urban and institutional fragmentation to become an engine of growth?

Anna Wellenstein's picture
Also available in: Français
 

Bamako, the capital of Mali, dominates the country’s urban and economic landscape – it is the nerve center of the national economy. Bamako has much to gain from becoming a productive and livable city. But currently it is far from that potential. The city is neither an engine of growth, nor of service delivery. Its urban development has been fragmented, fettering both - productivity, by preventing opportunities for matching people and jobs - and livability, by driving up the costs of urban infrastructure and service delivery.  If the urban form of the city continues to grow in an unplanned, spatially fragmented way, Bamako and its citizens will be locked into economically and socially unproductive urbanization. Tackling urban development challenges in the capital will have knock-on effects on Mali’s economic development.

Building back stronger, faster, and more inclusively

Ede Ijjasz-Vasquez's picture
 

Disasters caused by natural hazards result in average annual welfare losses of over US$500 billion and push up to 26 million people into poverty each year.  Some of these negative consequences are due to recovery that is not resilient, takes too long and is not equitable.  According to the Building Back Better report, this can be mitigated by building back stronger, faster and more inclusively following a disaster.

The 3 challenges in building urban resilience in Freetown

Ede Ijjasz-Vasquez's picture
 

Quantifying public spaces for better quality of urban assets

Hyunji Lee's picture
Photo by Hyunji Lee / World Bank

A stage is now ready for public urban spaces.
 
“By 2030, provide universal access to safe, inclusive and accessible, green and public spaces, particularly for women and children, older persons and persons with disabilities” – Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 11.7
 
The importance of public space is highlighted in international agendas, and diverse organizations started piloting the role of urban planning and public spaces in cities.


For instance,  UN Women launched the Safe Cities and Safe Public Spaces report, which enhanced public spaces designs with better lighting and CCTVs to prevent and respond to sexual violence against women. There are more onboard, including the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) on sustainable forestry  and the World Health Organization (WHO) on green spaces and health. The World Bank has also committed to enhancing public spaces across cities including Karachi, Chongqing, and Dhaka.

To realize these collective efforts, better measurement tools are vital to follow up with evidence-based approaches. On July 11th, 2018, UN-HABITAT and ISOCARP held a side event during the High-Level Political Forum at the UN, titled “Quantifying the Commons.” While speakers from various organizations including the World Bank presented their works, three key questions were raised regarding our future steps:

How to capture public life in public spaces?

Fen Wei's picture
Photo credit: Lois Goh/ World Bank
Urbanization and economic growth go hand in hand.  Cities are turning into centers of attraction in developing countries and their population is rising constantly. In such cities, we often see in a city a mix of old and new, slow and fast: Street vendors hawking their wares by luxury shopping malls; highways segmentizing parks and walkways; high-rise crowding out traditional neighborhoods, etc. However, we do not often see a well-balanced mix that serves all urban dwellers with a wide array of needs, economically and socially.
 
What are the ingredients of a good urban life, or rather, what does it take for a city to make the public happy? The answer to this is multifaceted. Cities need to be accessible, vibrant, and create safe public spaces to meet public needs.
 
As UN-Habitat’s Charter of Public Space states, public spaces are a key element of individual and social well-being, the places of a community’s collective life, particularly in situations of poverty and limited public resources, such as those in the developing countries. The Charter also highlights that participation of citizens and in particular of communities of residents is of crucial importance for the maintenance and management of public spaces. While there might be no objection to this statement, it is also true that it has been easily overlooked, especially in developing countries, for the sake of “economic efficiency.”

改造城市滨水区

Fen Wei's picture
Also available in: English
HafenCity, Hamburg. Photo Credit: ELBE&FLUT / Thomas Hampel at http://www.hafencity.com
港口新城,汉堡。
图片来源: ELBE&FLUT / Thomas Hampel at http://www.hafencity.com
 “滨水区不只是孤立存在的。它与其他所有的东西相关。” —— 杰出的城市规划师Jane Jacobs说。
 
这种关系是两方面的;它指的是城市与其滨水区的关系,这种关系不断变化正如城市本身不断变化一样。
 
在工业化时代,城市滨水区是服务于城市的后院,但最近几十年来,它已经从以前的定义发展演化,有了新的含义。

一方面,在改变城市结构甚或重塑城市形象方面,滨水区发挥了更重要的作用。
 
另一方面,成功的城市滨水区也展示了可以怎样释放和利用城市资源(如可利用的土地、更清洁的水、历史遗产保护和城市更新),以及怎样将这些因素融入城市和公众的生活。

[参阅: 城市土地再生:利用私人投资从业者指南]

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