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With a Visit to West Africa, Renewed Commitment to Women Traders

Cecile Fruman's picture

Also available in: Français


 World Bank Group.I recently returned from a trip to West Africa during which I crossed the Benin-Nigeria border by car at the Seme border post. While waiting for our passports to go through lengthy controls and stamping, I observed the intense activity of the numerous cars, motorbikes and pedestrians passing through.

Sure enough, most of the women were on foot, and they were the ones who were submitted to the most intense scrutiny. While the men on motorbikes were able to ram their way through by refusing to slow down, the women all had to go through a narrow passage where they were subject to questioning and document requirements. It was quite apparent that women were being asked for bribes that men were able to waive by driving right though! I had been reading about how women are subject to more intense harassment at border crossings – this experience brought this to life very vividly.

It made me thankful for all the work we at the World Bank Group are doing to help women traders on the African continent.

Why It Is Time to Take Action on Agriculture in Turkey

Donald F. Larson's picture

Turkish eggplant. Source - Suzie's FarmTurkey’s bid to join the European Union (EU) may finally be getting “back on track,” according to the bloc’s top official for enlargement. And while that track may still have a number of hurdles to clear, recent research, carried out by the World Bank Group outlines several interim policy measures that could bring the sides closer together while also benefitting the Turkish economy.

Most goods already move freely between the two economies, under the EU-Turkey Customs Union established in 1995. But agriculture, as is often the case, has proved a sticking point and remains outside the Customs Union today.

A set of permanent institutions, established under the 1963 Ankara Agreement, have chipped away at agricultural trade restrictions. These have steadily provided technical support and helped to facilitate quick action when political opportunities have arisen. And today there is still opportunity to take action on agriculture—with or without becoming an EU Member State.

Avoiding the “Harm” in Harmonized Standards for Food Staples in Africa

John Keyser's picture

Preparing vegetables taken from garden, Mongu, Zambia. Source - Felix Clay/DuckrabbitAfrica’s imports of staple foods could more than triple in the next 15 years. Without an increase in crop yields and an improvement in the trade of surplus food from areas with good growing conditions to deficit zones, importing sufficient amounts of staple food could cost the continent upwards of US$150 billion per year by 2030.

Fortunately, it doesn’t have to be this way. As the World Bank showed in its 2012 report, Africa Can Help Feed Africa, the continent could easily deliver improved food security to its citizens through increased regional trade.

Often the nearest source of inputs or best outlet for farm products is a across a border, yet high costs and unpredictable rules make trade difficult and discourage investments by small farmers in raising productivity and large investments by private companies in input supply and food marketing.

Facilitating regional trade is therefore more important than ever for reducing poverty and meeting Africa’s growing demand for staple foods.

In Trade Facilitation Assistance, Does Country Size Matter?

Jamal Ibrahim Haidar's picture

Border post at the Senegal-Guinea Bissau border. Source - jbdodane/Flickr​Greater attention is now being devoted to trade facilitation measures. The 159 members of the WTO agreed during their December 2013 meeting in Bali on a Trade Facilitation Agreement. And the European Commission, the World Bank, and other donors have just launched the implementation of the Trade Facilitation Support Program (TFSP).
 
The TFSP is to help developing countries reform and modernize their border procedures. Such initiative is important as time delays at customs affect trade. Each additional day that a product is delayed prior to being shipped reduces trade by more than 1%. Put differently, each day is equivalent to a country distancing itself from its trade partners by about 70 km on average.

New Voices in Investment: How Emerging Market Multinationals Decide Where, Why, and Why Not to Invest

Gonzalo Varela's picture

Emerging market multinationals (EMMs) have become increasingly salient players in global markets. In 2013, one out of every three dollars invested abroad originated from multinationals in emerging economies.

Up until now, we have had a limited understanding of the characteristics, motivations, and strategies of these firms. Why do EMMs decide to invest abroad? In which markets do they concentrate their investments and why? And how do their strategies and needs compare to those of traditional multinationals from developed countries?

In a book we will launch tomorrow at the World Bank, “New Voices in Investment,” we address these questions using a World Bank and UNIDO-funded survey of 713 firms from four emerging economies: Brazil, India, Korea, and South Africa.

At the Heart of the Matter: Improved Market Access to Food Supplies

Bill Gain's picture
Hi-Las workers weighing and sizing mangoes. Source -

At the Ninth WTO Ministerial Conference held in Bali on December 2013, all WTO members reached an agreement on trade facilitation and a compromise on food security issues, a contentious topic which had previously stalled talks during the 2008 Doha Development Round. The “Bali Package,” as it came to be known, was quickly heralded as an important milestone, reaffirming the legitimacy of multilateral trade negotiations while simultaneously recognizing the significant development benefits of reducing the time and costs to trade.

Seven months after the Bali Ministerial Conference, however, the Trade Facilitation Agreement (TFA) has yet to be ratified as India is concerned that insufficient attention has been given to the issue of food subsidies and the stockpiling of grains. India maintains that agreements on the food security issue must be in concert with the TFA.
 
Despite the current impasse in implementing the Bali decisions, the food security concern at the heart of the matter sheds light on the importance of improving the agribusiness supply chains of developing countries to ensure maximum efficiencies. Consider the fact that in 2014, farmers will produce approximately 2.5 billion tons of food. Yet, 1.3 billion tons are lost or wasted each year between farm and fork, while 805 million people suffer from chronic hunger.

How to De-Enclave the African Resource Sector for More Inclusive Growth and Development

Ken Opalo's picture
Oil drums in Ethiopia. Source - 10b travelling

The recent acceleration in growth rates across much of sub-Saharan Africa may not be purely commodity-driven, but for many of the region’s economies macro-economic stability is still dependent on prudent management of natural resources. For this reason, a strategic shift is required to shield African economies from commodity boom-burst cycles.
 
For much of the last half century, the dominant political economy model of natural resource management in Africa was this: states received royalties from mostly private mining companies and then were supposed to invest in public goods such as roads, hospitals, and schools. Private mining companies, for their part, would pick up the slack whenever states failed. Most of the time this happened through corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives, as a way of buying the social license needed to operate in specific communities.
 
This model has proven to be a complete failure in nearly all resource-rich African states, for a number of reasons.
 

Notes From the Field: Using Trade Diagnostics to Identify Opportunity in Burkina Faso

Miles McKenna's picture
Members of the Cooperative Agriculture Maraicher for Boulbi, nurture their fields of vegetables, as they water and hoe the fields on November 8, 2013 in Kieryaghin village, Burkina Faso. Source - Dominic Chavez/World Bank

Editor's Note: "Notes From the Field" is an occasional feature where we let World Bank Group professionals conducting interesting trade-related projects around the globe explain some of the challenges and triumphs of their day-to-day work. The views expressed here are personal and should not be attributed to the World Bank Group. All interviews have been edited for clarity.

The interview below was conducted with Mariam Diop, a Senior Economist with the World Bank Group. Mariam is based in the country office in Ouagadougou, the capital of Burkina Faso, where she carries out work in the WBG’s new Macro and Fiscal Management Global Practice. Mariam has been deeply involved with the country’s Diagnostic Trade Integration Studies (DTIS), which has helped to identify a number of key restraints on economic growth and shared prosperity in Burkina Faso. The Trade Post spoke with Mariam about what brought her to the country, where she sees opportunities, and how the DTIS has helped on the ground.
 

Trade and Development Leaders Discuss the Benefits of Global Value Chains

Julia Oliver's picture

Airplane engine. Photo - Doug Zwick/Flickr Creative Commons license.A business processing center in Riyadh that is run by women.

An e-commerce company that helps farmers develop transport companies to deliver packages to remote, rural areas of China.

An airplane engine designed in Turkey, constructed in North America, and used all over the world.

Each of these innovations emerged from a modern trend in trade – global value chains – that was the subject of discussion Friday at “Transforming World Trade: Global Value Chains and Development,” a flagship event of the Annual Meetings hosted by the World Bank Group and the International Monetary Fund. At issue: what are the implications of this trend for poverty and development?

The panelists included World Bank Group President Jim Yong Kim, World Trade Organization (WTO) Director-General Roberto Azevêdo, General Electric Company Vice Chairman John Rice, and Colombian Minister of Finance and Public Credit Mauricio Cárdenas.  Anabel Gonzalez, Senior Director of the World Bank Group’s Trade and Competitiveness Global Practice, moderated the discussion. The vantage points ranged widely, but all panelists seemed to agree: Global value chains hold promise for the poor.

On the Strength of Avocados and Airplane Parts: Making Global Value Chains Work for Development

Daria Taglioni's picture

Also available in: Español

In Chile, producers incorporated procedures that increased the quality of their avocados, thereby increasing their profit margins. Photo - Kristina/Flickr Creative Commons License.By now, developing countries are exporting parts and components used in some of the most sophisticated products on the planet. With the rise of global value chains (GVCs), workers in these countries are no longer just assembling imported parts for local sale, as has been done for decades. They are now participants in international production networks – in factories that cross borders.
 
This change is significant for economic development, as we argue in our forthcoming book, “Making Global Value Chains Work for Development.” GVCs will also be the subject of a discussion by World Bank Group President Dr. Jim Yong Kim, World Trade Organization Director-General Roberto Azevêdo, General Electric Vice Chairman John G. Rice, and Colombia Minister of Finance and Public Credit Mauricio Cárdenas -- and moderated by World Bank Trade and Competitiveness Senior Director Anabel González -- on Friday at “Transforming World Trade: Global Value Chains and Development,” a flagship event of the World Bank-IMF Annual Meetings.

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