Great article Gerald. We experienced much more clearance delay and unnecessary formalities in one of the country examples in your article ever since their implementation of National Single Window. While agriculture, health, environment, police etc. agencies have obvious reasons and mandates for their scope of controls; their individual implementing regulations and procedures need to be refined for operation under integrated platform. Implementation of National Single Window using World Customs Organization customs HS code as sole reference indicator for all types of boarder control requirements of all agencies confuses traders and front line officers of concerned agencies, instead of facilitating trade and enhancing efficiency of controls.