Belatedly, I have come across you post, Gerard. Excellent points especially the key issue that, often, Customs is more advanced in terms of ICT maturity than other agencies which, very often, make very little use of ICT in an enterprise sense. For this reason in many SW projects Customs is the lead agency and tends to 'drag' the other agencies along, often reluctantly. In some places SW is also referred to as a 'Customs Single Window' which betrays a Customs-centric view of the clearance process. The approach the Bank has taken lately of including all the government actors in the scope at the onset around an inclusive governance structure and focusing on the benefits in control and efficiency that SW would also accrue for them is to be commended. This also means that the implementation of the IT facilities must be coupled with business re-engineering and capacity building on a larger scale with the OGA's than with Customs and, therefore, the scope and pace of the project must be geared accordingly rather than being driven by the relatively easy ICT implementation agenda. What happens without that is what we have seen in some places where SW is a mere electronic duplicate of the old manual processes with little advantage to the trade.