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确保交通设施无障碍:来自中国的实地经验

Shomik Mehndiratta's picture
确保城市道路设计对于所有人尤其是对行动不便人员无障碍,始终是世界银行城市交通战略的基石。但是,即使实现城市道路的无障碍化只涉及一些相对简单的措施,比如在人行道上增加触觉标记和缘石坡道,在实施中也不容易做到。虽然改造设施所增加的成本可以说是微不足道,但是对细节的重视却至关重要。这一点往往并不容易做到,就像左边这张几年前拍摄于一次项目实施督导中的照片所显示的情形——这个人行道的缘石坡道没有与人行道对准,而且宽度也太窄无法让轮椅通行。

在这一背景下,在中国东北的一个中等城市项目成为我们职业生涯中最难忘的经历。辽宁中等城市基础设施项目的主要内容是中国工业大省辽宁省五个中等城市的城市道路恢复与改善。虽然所有的最终书面设计方案都符合政府的无障碍设计要求,但是最终的结果往往看起来就像这张照片,“有其名而无其实”。我们世行交通团队一直努力说服我们的合作方重视这个问题。而当我们指出并跟进某些具体问题时,他们往往会认为我们过于挑剔,不了解当地施工的实际情况。
 
在我们建议让各城市的残疾人联合会参与监督道路施工后,情况才开始出现好转。这一社会团体存在于中国的各个城市,而且往往与政府有良好的联系。随后,我们合作方的项目管理部门正式邀请残疾人联合会参与讨论基础设施的无障碍措施,并邀请市民进行实地测试。几周后,三个城市给我们寄来照片和电视报道,这些照片和电视报道反映出精心安排和务实的研讨会和当地社区测试新设施的场面。我们高兴地看到,研讨会也采纳了残疾人联合会的建议,这些建议主要都是关于市区需要改进的一些具体设施的。虽然这些建议与世行团队的建议没有本质的区别,但效果却好得多:不仅所有的建议都被采纳,而且至少有一个城市,即锦州市决定将这些措施制度化,并且每年召开一次和残疾人联合会的研讨会,对上年所有的施工工程进行讨论、评估和改进。

Ensuring universal access: Lessons from the field in China

Shomik Mehndiratta's picture
Ensuring that urban roads are designed to be accessible to all users — particularly to users with mobility challenges — has long been a cornerstone of the World Bank’s urban transport strategy. But even if making urban roads more accessible involves relatively simple interventions such as building functioning sidewalks with tactile markings and curbside ramps, consistent implementation has not been easy.

Although the incremental costs associated with such upgrades are fairly negligible, attention to detail is paramount. That is not always easy, and the attached picture (at right) taken during an implementation support mission some years ago illustrates this challenge quite well — this ramp is not aligned with sidewalk and too narrow for a wheelchairs to actually use.  
 
Within that context, a project that took us to a series of medium-sized cities in North East China turned into one of the most memorable experiences of our careers. The Liaoning Medium Cities Infrastructure Project focused on rehabilitating and improving urban roads in five medium-sized cities of the industrial province of Liaoning. While on paper all the final designs complied with official accessibility requirements, the finished product often looked like the attached picture, with just enough askew to render the infrastructure unusable to many users. As the Bank team, we were struggling to get our counterparts within the city government to appreciate the issue. When we pointed out and followed up on particular issues, they would often see us as being nitpicky and somewhat out-of-touch with the gritty realities of construction in local conditions. 

The Future of Driving and Finding the Right Incentives for Behavior Change

Julie Babinard's picture

What would blogs be good for if it were not for their intent on steering a bit of controversy?
So here it is… I do not believe that behavior change interventions can effect lasting change in people’s travel patterns unless real choices are available to them within the local context.

Getting ready for ICT’s potential to make transport safer and more efficient

Julie Babinard's picture

How relevant is ICT for transport? The emergence of low-cost open-source mapping tools; widespread cellular network coverage in developing countries; declining costs of mobile phone hardware; and increasing Internet use by public agencies have resulted in unprecedented opportunities to support transport planning and management in developing countries.

New findings on social and physical mobility bring transport into the spotlight again

Julie Babinard's picture

For those of us anxiously awaiting the new edition of the World Bank’s leading publication, the World Development Report (WDR) each year, this year’s edition does not disappoint.  Credit should be given to the team of the ‘WDR2012: Gender Equality and Development’ team for successfully moving their analysis from skepticism to the elaboration of a sensible analytical framework focused on aspects of gender equa

The Story behind 50 Years of Transport Investment in the Poorest Countries

The International Development Association (IDA) is a vital, yet oddly lesser known, arm of the World Bank Group. Briefly, IDA receives donor remittances and a portion of interest payments received from World Bank lending programs and disburses these funds as interest-free grants and subsidized loans to the poorest countries in lieu of traditional lending.

Accessible and inclusive transport: can we achieve it?

Julie Babinard's picture

Have you ever been to a foreign city and not been able to figure out the names of the stations or directions of that city’s metro? Did you feel completely lost and upset with whoever designed the system? Maybe as a parent you have tried taking a bus with a stroller and gave up because you were not able to take it up the steep stairs?