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East Asia and Pacific

The way out of poverty and corruption is paved with good governance

Sri Mulyani Indrawati's picture
Also available in: Español | العربية | Français

Woman speaks to World Bank MD and COO Sri Mulyani Indrawati in the Nyabithu District of Rwanda. © Simone D. McCourtie/World Bank

For the first time in history, the number of people living in extreme poverty has fallen below 10%. The world has never been as ambitious about development as it is today. After adopting the Sustainable Development Goals and signing the Paris climate deal at the end of 2015, the global community is now looking into the best and most effective ways of reaching these milestones. In this five-part series I will discuss what the World Bank Group is doing and what we are planning to do in key areas that are critical for ending poverty by 2030: good governance, gender equality, conflict and fragility, creating jobs, and, finally, preventing and adapting to climate change.


Twenty years ago, the World Bank took up the fight against corruption as an integral part of reducing poverty, hunger, and disease. The decision was groundbreaking then and remains valid today. Corruption diverts resources from the poor to the rich, leads to a culture of bribes, and distorts public expenditures, deterring foreign investors and hampering economic growth.

Why investing in forests is money—and time-- well spent

Tone Skogen's picture
Also available in: Português
Togo_Andrea Borgarello / World Bank

It is widely acknowledged that reducing emissions from deforestation could bring about one-third of the greenhouse gas emission reductions we need by 2030 to stay on a 2-degrees trajectory. But protecting and managing forests wisely does not only make sense from a climate perspective.  It is also smart for the economy. Forests are key economic resources in tropical countries. Protecting them would increase resilience to climate change, reduce poverty and help preserve invaluable biodiversity.

Here are just a few facts to illustrate why forests are so important. First, forests provide us with ecosystem services like pollination of food crops, water and air filtration, and protection against floods and erosion. Forests are also home for about 1.3 billion people worldwide who depend on forest resources for their livelihood. Locally, forests contribute to the rainfall needed to sustain food production over time. When forests are destroyed, humanity is robbed of these benefits. 

The New Climate Economy report shows us that economic growth and cutting carbon emissions can be mutually reinforcing. We need more innovation and we need more investments in a low carbon direction. This requires some fundamental choices of public policy, and the transformation will not be easy. However, it is possible and indeed the only path to sustained growth and development. If land uses are productive and energy systems are efficient, they will both drive strong economic growth and reduce carbon intensity.

Already, the world's large tropical forest countries are taking action. 

Por que investir nas florestas é dinheiro e tempo bem empregados

Tone Skogen's picture
Also available in: English
Togo_Andrea Borgarello / World Bank

É amplamente reconhecido que a redução de emissões provenientes do desmatamento poderia corresponder a um terço da diminuição das emissões de gases de efeito estufa necessária até 2030 para o planeta não aquecer mais de 2ºC. No entanto, proteger e gerenciar as florestas de forma prudente não somente faz sentido de uma perspectiva do clima. É também algo inteligente para a economia. As florestas são recursos econômicos de suma importância nos países tropicais. Protegê-las aumentará a resiliência às mudanças do clima, reduzirá a pobreza e ajudará a preservar a biodiversidade.

Seguem apenas alguns fatos para ilustrar por que as florestas são tão importantes. Primeiro, as florestas nos prestam serviços de ecossistema, tais como polinização de safras de alimentos, água e filtração do ar, bem como proteção contra inundações e erosão. As florestas também abrigam cerca de 1,3 bilhão de pessoas no mundo inteiro que dependem dos recursos florestais para subsistência. Em nível local, as florestas contribuem para a pluviosidade necessária para manter a produção de alimentos no correr do tempo. Quando as florestas são destruídas, esses benefícios são roubados da humanidade. 

O novo Relatório sobre a Economia Climática nos mostra que o crescimento econômico e a redução das emissões de carbono podem se reforçar mutuamente. Precisamos de mais inovação e mais investimentos para ter uma economia de baixo carbono. Isso requer certas escolhas fundamentais de política pública e a transformação não será fácil. No entanto, é possível e na realidade trata-se do único caminho para um crescimento e desenvolvimento sustentados. Se o uso da terra for produtivo e os sistemas energéticos forem eficientes, ambos impulsionarão um desenvolvimento econômico sólido e reduzirão a intensidade das emissões carbono.

Em âmbito mundial, os países com as grandes florestas tropicais já estão agindo.

Nas florestas, uma mudança de atitude em favor dos povos indígenas

Myrna Kay Cunningham Kain's picture
Also available in: Español | English
Girl. Panama. Gerardo Pesantez-World Bank

Em 2015, mais de 500 milhões de hectares de florestas eram posse de povos indígenas. Embora nas últimas décadas a área florestal designada aos povos indígenas e sob sua posse tenha aumentado, os governos ainda administram 60% dessas áreas, e as corporações e agentes privados, 9%. A pressão dos povos indígenas nas últimas décadas tornou possível aumentar em cerca de 50% a área florestal reconhecida como propriedade das comunidades indígenas e a elas designada. A América Latina e o Caribe, onde os povos indígenas controlam 40% das florestas, é a região com maiores avanços. Outras regiões do mundo mostram tendências semelhantes.

Para os povos indígenas, que sempre têm vivido na floresta, ela representa seu espaço de reprodução cultural, produção de alimentos e segurança espiritual. Para os governos e empresas, a floresta contém ativos importantes para a produção de alimentos, desenvolvimento econômico, segurança, mitigação da mudança do clima, sequestro de carbono, água, minerais e extração de gás. A essas percepções divergentes sobre propriedade e uso da floresta somou-se nas últimas décadas a multiplicação de conflitos sobre o controle do território e recursos florestais. Com a crescente demanda internacional de bens primários (minerais, hidrocarbonetos, soja e outros produtos agrícolas básicos), há um maior dinamismo econômico com base em sua exploração. No entanto, isso foi ao custo de graves impactos ambientais, reclassificações espaciais e violações de direitos, interesses, territórios e recursos dos povos indígenas (CEPAL 2014).

Nesse contexto, o que está contribuindo para a mudança de atitude, tanto no nível de país como global, que nos permite concluir que essa situação já começou a se reverter?

For forests, a change in attitude in favor of indigenous communities

Myrna Kay Cunningham Kain's picture
Also available in: Español | Português
Girl. Panama. Gerardo Pesantez-World Bank
In 2015, more than 500 million hectares of forests were held by indigenous peoples.  Despite the increase in forest area designated for and owned by indigenous peoples in recent decades, governments still administer 60 percent of these forest areas while firms and private individuals administer 9 percent. Pressure exerted by indigenous peoples over the past few decades has led to a 50 percent increase in forest areas recognized as being owned or designated for use by indigenous communities. The greatest strides have been made in Latin America and the Caribbean, where indigenous peoples control 40 percent of forest land. Similar trends have been observed in other regions across the globe.  

For the indigenous peoples who have always lived in the forests, these areas represent their space for cultural reproduction, food production, and spiritual security. For governments and companies, forests contain major assets for food production, economic development, security, climate change mitigation, carbon sequestration, water, minerals, and gas extraction. Added to these divergent views on forest ownership and use is the proliferation in recent decades of conflicts over territorial control and forest resources. Growing international demand for commodities (minerals, hydrocarbons, soybeans, and other basic agricultural products) has fueled greater economic activity linked to the development of forest resources. However, this progress has come at a price: adverse environmental impacts, the reclassification of spaces, and the dispossession of the rights, interests, territories, and resources of indigenous peoples (ECLAC 2014).  

In this context, a question arises: What is contributing to the behavioral change, both at the country and global levels, which leads us to conclude that a reversal in the situation has begun?

The future of wildlife is in our hands

Claudia Sobrevila's picture
Also available in: Français
Botswana. The Global Wildlife Program

On March 3rd we will celebrate World Wildlife Day. Adopted by the UN General Assembly in 2013, this day raises awareness of the world’s wild fauna and flora. This year’s theme, "The future of wildlife is in our hands" resonates with those who understand the impact of species loss on the health of ecosystems and human survival.

We are currently in the midst of the sixth, man-made mass extinction of plants and animals. Experts estimate the current loss of species to be between 1,000 and 10,000 times higher than the natural extinction rate. The global Living Planet Index (LPI) shows an overall species decline of 52% between 1970 and 2010. Our increasing demands on nature are driving the two biggest catastrophic threats to species decline- habitat loss and wildlife trade. Habitat loss is a threat to 85% of all species.  Exploitation (including poaching and wildlife trade) is the most immediate threat to wildlife populations worldwide.

Illicit trafficking in wildlife is a multifaceted global threat. The problem is particularly acute in Africa, where poaching is leading some charismatic species to the brink of extinction. For example, in 2011 the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) declared the Western black rhino extinct, largely due to poaching. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) Monitoring the Illegal Killing of Elephants (MIKE) program estimated that in the last 5 years, between 22,000 to 25,000 elephants were poached per year across Africa.

Fragility, conflict, and natural disasters – a ‘one-size fits all’ approach to resilience?

Francis Ghesquiere's picture
Also available in: Español | العربية | Français
A partner from the EU assesses damage to an apartment building in Ukraine. Photo credit: EU

It’s a simple yet essential idea: war and disaster are linked, and these links must be examined to improve the lives of millions of people around the world.

Alarmingly, the total number of disaster events – and the economic losses associated with those events – keep increasing. This trend has been driven by population growth, urbanization, and climate change, leading to increasing economic losses of $150-$200 billion each year, up from $50 billion in the 1980s. But here is another piece of information: more than half of people impacted by natural hazards lived in fragile or conflict-affected states.

Melihat dampak kebakaran hutan di Sumatra Selatan: Pandangan dari lapangan

Ann Jeannette Glauber's picture
Also available in: English
Indonesia, burned forest. Photo by Ann Jeannette Glauber / World Bank

Musim gugur lalu saya kaget membaca judul berita ini: Kebakaran hutan di Indonesia menghasilkan emisi gas rumah kaca setara seluruh ekonomi Amerika Serikat.
 
Judul lain berbunyi: Antara Juni dan Oktober 2015, lahan sebesar 2,5 juta hektar – atau 4,5 kali luas Bali – terbakar guna membersihkan lahan untuk produksi minyak kelapa sawit, tanaman hasil hutan non-kayu dengan nilai tertinggi, terdapat dalam, antara lain, produk makanan, kosmetik dan biofuel.
 
Belum lama ini, bersama Vice President for Sustainable Development Laura Tuck dan Indonesia Country Director Rodrigo Chaves, saya mengunjungi Sumatra Selatan, salah satu provinsi yang paling menderita akibat kebakaran hutan.
 
Kami melihat berbagai ilalang dan tanda-tanda lanskap rusak yang lain, mengganti kawasan hutan gambut yang kaya akan keanekaragaman hayati.
 
Kami berbicara dengan masyarakat setempat yang menjelaskan bahwa mereka menutup pintu dan jendela dengan handuk basah agar mengurangi asap. Keluarga mereka termasuk dari setengah juta warga yang menderita gangguan pernapasan serta sakit kulit dan mata akibat kebakaran hutan. Anak-anak mereka termasuk diantara 4,6 juta siswa yang tidak bisa sekolah, bahkan selama beberapa minggu, akibat kebakaran hutan.
 
Namun walaupun banyak keluarga kehilangan pemasukan karena usaha mereka terpaksa  tutup sementara, ada juga yang mengatakan api itu memperbaiki kondisi  tanah setempat.

Seeing the impact of forest fires in South Sumatra: a view from the field

Ann Jeannette Glauber's picture
Also available in: Bahasa Indonesia
Indonesia, burned forest. photo by Ann Jeannette Glauber / World Bank

This past autumn, I saw a shocking headline: Forest fires in Indonesia were creating as many greenhouse gas emissions as the entire United States economy.
 
Between June and October 2015, an estimated 2.6 million hectares—or 4.5 times the size of Bali— burned to clear land for production  of palm oil, the world’s highest value non-timber forest crop, used in food products, cosmetics, biofuels.
 
Recently, along with Vice President for Sustainable Development Laura Tuck and Indonesia Country Director Rodrigo Chaves, I visited South Sumatra, one of the provinces hardest hit by the fires.
 
We saw scrubby fire-adapted landscapes that had replaced biodiversity-rich peat swamp forests.
 
We spoke with local communities who explained how they covered doors and windows with wet towels, to help reduce the smoke.  These families are among the half million people who suffered from fire-related respiratory infections, skin and eye ailments; their children were among the 4.6 million students who missed school last year due to fires, some for weeks at a time.
 
While some of these families lost earnings or assets due to the fires, others spoke of how fire improves soil quality. 
 

Lead pollution robs children of their futures

Ernesto Sanchez-Triana's picture
Vicki Francis/Department for International Development

When the water is poor, people get sick: they have diarrhea; their growth is stunted; they die. When the air is poor, people get sick: they cough; they cannot leave their beds; they die. However, they do not look sick when there is lead in their blood. You cannot look at a child who has an unhealthy blood lead level (BLL) and say, "This is not right. Something must be done," because in most cases, there is nothing to see.

Lead (Pb) exposure—which is making headlines in the U.S. because of recent events in Flint, Michigan-- is a major source of critical environmental health risks. But the problem is subtle: Affected children do not perform as well in school. They are late to read. They are slow to learn how to do tasks. Perhaps a few more children are born with cognitive deficits. Perhaps these children have less impulse control. Perhaps they exhibit more violence.

These symptoms are not always understood as an environmental or a public health problem – or indeed a development problem. Instead, people will say it is an issue of morals or of education. They will discipline the children, and then they will take themselves to task and ask how and why they are failing to raise these children correctly. Furthermore, they will have no idea that the problem is in the children’s blood.

Young children are particularly vulnerable to lead exposure. Studies have documented that exposure leads to neuropsychological impacts in children--including impaired intelligence, measured as intelligence IQ losses--at blood lead levels even lower than 5 micrograms of lead per deciliter of blood (µg/dL).  So, clearly, the effect occurs at even very low BLLs. 

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