confirming Allems and Chris reported principles.
Programs have to accommodate frequent changes of plans and decisions by the independent groups. It becomes clear that only those support organizations that attempt to institutionalize learning mechanisms have a chance to reach their goals, which may also be changing in the process.
Public service agents had particular difficulty accepting the concepts of reflection and self-reflection, generally due to their top-down training and work in hierarchies. They tend to:
• be inclined to emphasize their status and find it difficult to accept the poor as equal partners in development,
• be trained to convince the participants (or worse, to use authority) and they often do not see how ineffective these methods have been.
Consequently, they are unable to see the need to transition to a facilitating role, which would enable the participants to find their own problem solutions, assisted by the civil services where needed.
• have difficulties listening to stakeholders instead of promoting their public organization’s solutions