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What happens to women when men leave the farm? Sharing Evidence from Nepal and Senegal

Anuja Kar's picture
Also available in: العربية | Français | Español
 Poverty Alleviation Fund II Project, Government of Nepal.
Smallholder female farmer in Nepal: Poverty Alleviation Fund II Project, Government of Nepal.

Kofi Annan once said that ‘There is no tool more effective than the empowerment of women.’ This is definitely true in the agriculture sector: Empowered women are critical to sustainable agricultural growth and equitable rural transformation.  In June 2018, we published a report on “Male Outmigration and Women’s Work and Empowerment in Agriculture, which explores the impacts of rural outmigration on the lives and livelihoods of women who stay behind on the farms. The first in what will be a series of publications, this report uses innovative survey data to produce rigorous evidence on the gendered impacts of rural outmigration.  

Why does it matter? Globally, migration is an important development agenda and is closely connected with agriculture in many countries. The available evidence suggests that across the globe, migration originating from rural areas is predominantly male, which could potentially lead to significant socioeconomic changes in rural areas, including changes in traditional gender norms. Using data from two comparable, surveys for Nepal and Senegal collected between August and November 2017, we studied the effects of male outmigration from rural, primarily agricultural areas on women’s work and empowerment--both in agriculture and in the household.

2018: A year of influence, impact and cooperation on global issues through social media

Zubedah Robinson's picture


​In 2018, the themes of climate change, disruptive technology, and human capital were not only priorities for the World Bank Group, but for governments, private companies, and international organizations of all kinds. The level of partnership online among these groups has been unprecedented as the world collectively tries to address global challenges.

The same kind of cooperation that is driving impact on the ground is also driving awareness and advocacy more broadly as the world rises to these challenges. Below are just a few examples of how collaboration online has strengthened and amplified the global effort to end poverty in 2018 across three key themes.

Tackling climate change in the poorest countries

Axel van Trotsenburg's picture
Also available in: العربية | Français | 日本語 | Español
Burundi. © Sarah Farhat/World Bank
Burundi. © Sarah Farhat/World Bank

How can we help the poorest countries deal with climate change? The challenge is huge. Globally, the last three years were the hottest on record.  Emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuels and industry started rising again in 2017 after briefly leveling off. Many regions are experiencing more severe and frequent storms, floods, and drought. According to the latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report, the climate consequences of a 2°C warmer world are far greater than for a rise of 1.5°C, and we are not on track for either.

Recognizing the urgent need for more action, the World Bank Group announced new and ambitious targets for our climate work with developing countries at COP24, this month’s global climate change conference in Katowice, Poland. Having recently exceeded our 2020 financing targets two years ahead of schedule, we are aiming to double our investments to $200 billion over the five years from 2021 to 2025. The Bank Group is also making adaptation and resilience a top priority, since millions of people are already dealing with the severe consequences of more extreme weather events. By ramping up direct adaptation finance to around $50 billion over FY21-25, the World Bank will now give it equal emphasis to investments that reduce emissions.

How is the Human Capital Index prompting action?

Jason Weaver's picture
Also available in: 中文 | Français | العربية
Students at the Zanaki Primary School in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. © Sarah Farhat/World Bank
Students at the Zanaki Primary School in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. © Sarah Farhat/World Bank

Whew, it’s out!

On October 11, 2018, the World Bank Group released its inaugural Human Capital Index (HCI), a tool that quantifies the contribution of health and education to the productivity of a country’s next generation of workers. The question underpinning the HCI asks, “How much human capital can a child born today expect to acquire by age 18, given the risks to poor health and poor education that prevail in the country where she lives?” Globally, 56 percent of children born today will lose more than half their potential lifetime earnings because governments and other stakeholders are not currently making effective investments to ensure a healthy, educated, and resilient population ready for the workplace of the future.

To drive urgent action on human capital development, the Bank Group’s Human Capital Project (HCP) is working on two other fronts beyond the Human Capital Index. These are Measurement & Research and Country Engagement.

The voice of investors – a new Investor Forum

Helen Martin's picture
Also available in: 中文 | Español
From left to right: World Bank Group President Jim Yong Kim; Canada’s Prime Minister Justin Trudeau; Neeti Bhalla, Executive Vice President and Chief Investment Officer for Liberty Mutual Insurance Group; Brian Moynihan, CEO, Bank of America and Hiromichi Mizuno, Executive Managing Director, Government Pension Investment Fund Japan (GPIF). Photo: © World Bank
From left to right: World Bank Group President Jim Yong Kim; Canada’s Prime Minister Justin Trudeau; Neeti Bhalla, Executive Vice President and Chief Investment Officer for Liberty Mutual Insurance Group; Brian Moynihan, CEO, Bank of America and Hiromichi Mizuno, Executive Managing Director, Government Pension Investment Fund Japan (GPIF). Photo: © World Bank

Institutional investors increasingly hold the world’s purse strings, with a growing share of private savings. What will it take for financiers to allocate more of that capital in ways that align with development goals—in the long-term investments, particularly in infrastructure, that are needed to help lift more people out of poverty and boost shared prosperity?
 
To answer that question, the World Bank Group and the Government of Argentina convened the first ever Investor Forum on the eve of the G20 Summit in Buenos Aires. The Investor Forum brought together investors holding over $20 trillion dollars of assets, finance experts, government representatives, and development partners for a frank and practical conversation.

Calling all innovators! Help achieve ‘Good ID’ for the world’s invisible billion

Makhtar Diop's picture
© Daniel Silva Yoshisato
© Daniel Silva Yoshisato

An estimated one billion people around the world – half of which are in Africa – lack official identification to prove who they are. And many millions more have forms of identification that cannot be reliably verified or authenticated. More than 450 million of these are children who have not had their birth registered. Women and the poor in low-income countries are less likely to have official identification.

Without a trusted and secure way to prove their identity, the poorest and most vulnerable face challenges in accessing healthcare, education, and financial services, as well as opportunities that can improve their economic and social mobility.

Breaking down the barriers to mobilizing sustainable investment

Ceyla Pazarbasioglu's picture
Also available in: Español
Closing Plenary of the Investor Forum. © World Bank

“Private capital is often an important source of sustainable finance. Public finance alone may not be sufficient to meet the demands for sustainable finance as the global economy continues to grow and poses increasing burdens on our resources and ecosystems. Mobilizing private investment in areas such as sustainable infrastructure, sustainable technologies and business model innovations, among others, can deliver substantive environmental, social, and economic benefits.”

This summary from the G20’s Sustainable Finance Synthesis Report was at the heart of the discussion at the Investor Forum, which was held on the sidelines of the G20 Summit in Buenos Aires in November. The event – hosted by the World Bank and the Government of Argentina – brought together investors holding over $20 trillion of assets as well as stakeholders and representatives from G20 governments. The goal was to identify steps for boosting long-term, sustainable, private-sector investments that tackle development challenges and promote economic growth in parts of the world that need it most.

Think behaviorally to boost impact

Carolina Sánchez-Páramo's picture
In Guatemala, Program Leader Marco Hernandez and his team tested behaviorally informed messages in letters to non-compliant taxpayers. © World Bank
In Guatemala, Program Leader Marco Hernandez and his team tested behaviorally informed messages in letters to non-compliant taxpayers. © World Bank
Behavioral science can provide creative solutions to difficult challenges, often at low cost. Behaviorally informed policy emphasizes the importance of context for decision making and behavior, paying attention to the social, psychological, and economic factors that affect what people think and do.

Since the 2015 World Development Report on Mind, Society, and Behavior, behavioral science approaches have been spreading across the World Bank Group’s work. Several staffers recently gave “lightning talks” about how they’re applying behavioral science to seemingly intractable problems that matter to all of us. Here are a few takeaways from the speakers who offered important lessons on incorporating human behavior into program design:

The ongoing impact of ‘nudging’ people to pay their taxes

Oscar Calvo-González's picture
Also available in: Español
© Maria Fleischmann/World Bank
© Maria Fleischmann/World Bank

Sustainability is the holy grail of development. There are many interventions that yield positive results in the short term but somehow fail to be sustained over time. This is why the experience in Guatemala that we are about to describe is worth paying attention to. In short, it shows that behavioral insights can lead to lasting change.

It all began in 2012 in the United Kingdom, with simple changes in the reminder letters sent to taxpayers that were late in their income tax payment. The changes were very successful, inducing payments of 4.9 million pounds (around $6.5 million) in a sample of almost 120,000 delinquent taxpayers, which would not have been raised without the intervention. The then-nascent institution called the "Behavioral Insights Team" (BIT) became known around the world with this effective and very low-cost intervention that was based on modifying the messages of the letters sent to delinquent taxpayers. The message that was most effective said: "Nine out of ten people in the U.K. pay their taxes on time. You are currently in the very small minority of people who have not paid us yet." Behavioral science experts have been able to show that telling people what most people do, especially when it comes to positive behavior, is a good technique to change behavior.

Get creative: Join the World Bank Group and Financial Times’ blog writing competition for high school students

Arathi Sundaravadanan's picture
Also available in: Español | Français | العربية | 日本語
© World Bank
© World Bank

Do you often wonder what kind of job you will have when you grow up? Do you think your school is preparing you for the work you may do in the future? What will classrooms and teachers of the future be like? Do you think there are better ways to learn? Do you have inspired and imaginative ideas to re-invent education? Are you between the ages of 16 and 19 and currently enrolled in high school or a secondary education institution?

If this sounds like you, then enter our blog writing contest! The World Bank Group and the Financial Times are hosting a competition for our future leaders. We want young people with brilliant ideas and solutions, who will be most affected by the changing nature of jobs and skills to share their perspective on what could help better prepare them for the future.

Why are we running this competition? Technology is rapidly changing the world we live in and bringing us many opportunities, but we also need to adapt to these changes. The jobs of the future will be different from the ones today and we will need to learn new things and develop new skills to excel at them. This builds on the recently launched Human Capital Project as well as the World Bank’s World Development Reports on The Changing Nature of Work and LEARNING to Realize Education’s Promise.

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