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Open Defecation

3 steps to improve rural sanitation in India - a pathway to scale and sustainability

Joep Verhagen's picture
Child using a latrine in Rajasthan. 
Photo credit: World Bank

Almost 600 million Indians living in rural areas defecate in the open. To meet the ambitious targets of the Indian government’s Swachh Bharat Mission Grameen (SBM (G)) – the rural clean India mission – plans to eliminate open defecation by 2019. SBM (G) is time-bound with a stronger results orientation, targeting the monitoring of both outputs (access to sanitation) and outcomes (usage). There is also a stronger focus on behavior change interventions and states have been accorded greater flexibility to adopt their own delivery mechanisms. 
 
The World Bank has provided India with a US$1.5 billion loan and embarked on a technical assistance program to support the strengthening of SBM-G program delivery institutions at the national level, and in select states in planning, implementing and monitoring of the program.

New tactics to nudge habit change for open defecation behavior

Jacqueline Devine's picture
Open defecation remains a critical global health challenge, affecting almost 1 billion people around the world and contributing significantly to the estimated 842,000 people who die each year because of poor sanitation, hygiene practices, and unsafe water supplies [1].
 
Most behavior change approaches and frameworks for addressing open defecation have focused on relatively conscious, “reflective”  drivers of behavior, including people’s emotions (such as pride or shame), rational knowledge (e.g., of germ theory), social norms, and explicit action plans (such as commitments to change). Using the framework popularized by renowned social psychologist Daniel Kahneman [2].<, these factors can be described as “System 2” drivers of behavior i.e., relatively conscious and motivational factors. It is now well established, however, that human behavior can also be heavily influenced by “System 1” drivers i.e., relatively automatic, cue-driven factors [3].

Que se passe-t-il lorsqu’un enfant joue et fait ses besoins au même endroit ?

Emily C. Rand's picture
Also available in: English
Imaginons que vous êtes une maman en train de faire la lessive à la borne-fontaine située à proximité de la maison. Votre enfant de deux ans, qui joue par terre, a besoin d’aller aux toilettes. Que faites-vous ? Il y a de fortes chances pour que vous le laissiez faire ses besoins par terre, là où il se trouve.

Selon une analyse récemment menée par le Fonds des Nations Unies pour l'enfance (UNICEF) et le Programme pour l’eau et l’assainissement (WSP) de la Banque mondiale dans un certain nombre de pays clés, plus de 50% des ménages ayant des enfants de moins de trois ans indiquent n’avoir pris aucune précaution d’hygiène la dernière fois que l’un d’eux a fait ses besoins. Ce qui signifie, concrètement, que les enfants défèquent là où ils se trouvent et que leurs excréments sont laissés là, à l’air libre. Par ailleurs, les excréments d’autres enfants du voisinage sont jetés dans une rigole ou un fossé, ou bien enterrés ou jetés avec les déchets solides, et restent donc dans l’environnement direct de la zone d’habitation.

 

What happens when the playground is also the potty?

Emily C. Rand's picture
Also available in: Français

Imagine you are a busy mother scrubbing your laundry next to the public water stand near your yard. You realize your two year old — who is playing in the dirt — has to go to the toilet. What do you do? Chances are good you might just let them go on the ground somewhere nearby.

According to a recent analysis by the United Nations Children Fund (UNICEF) and the World Bank Global Water Practice's Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) in key countries, over 50 percent of households with children under age three reported that the feces of their children were unsafely disposed of the last time they defecated. What this really means is that children are literally pooping where they are and their feces are left there, in the open. Meanwhile, the feces of other children in the neighborhood are put or rinsed in a ditch or drain, or buried or thrown into solid waste streams that keep the feces near the household environment.

 

A Basic Need to Help Children

Alassane Sow's picture

Alassane Sow, World Bank Country Manager for Cambodia, and Rana Flowers, UNICEF Representative to Cambodia, wrote an op-ed for The Phnom Penh Post. Read the op-ed below, courtesy of The Phnom Penh Post.

Did you know that in communities where a high proportion of people defecate outdoors, children are on average shorter than children living in communities where most people use toilets?

How the Issue of “Going” Outside Hit Home

Jecinter Hezron's picture

If a year ago you told me that I would be able to speak authoritatively on the technical aspects of sanitation, I would have thought you were crazy! Kenya is my home; I am 130% Kenyan and have lived here my whole life. In all this time, I never fully realized the sanitation issues in my country. True, I knew the statistics but until recently I didn’t fully realize how the impact was hitting my home.
 

We Need Your Support to Get Our Dignity Back

Yolande Coombes's picture

In 2007, when I started to work on rural sanitation in Tanzania,  I was intrigued to see the plethora of reports highlighting the ‘sanitation crisis’ in Africa. Of all the Millennium Development Goals, Africa was performing worst in meeting the sanitation target. This message was repeated during the International Year of Sanitation and through the eThekwini Declaration and Commitments in 2008, at AfricaSan3 in 2011, and in the WHO/Unicef Joint Monitoring Programme report on progress toward MDGs released last month. But progress is slow. It’s time for us to engage with other groups and sectors that are affected by inadequate sanitation – health, education, environment, and finance.