We agree that these are most encouraging developments, and we hope to see more use of carbon financing and reuse of waste water and fecal sludge. We are closely watching and supporting such initiatives as they move from pilot development to implementation at scale. However, this will take time and a lot of money to develop for the vast numbers involved. In the meanwhile, around 800 million urban dwellers lack any form of toilet and an estimated 78% of fecal waste goes untreated, even if it is initially contained by a toilet. These numbers are increasing monthly, due to the high rate of urban migration into slums and informal settlements. Improved on-site sanitation and FSM constitute a flexible, immediate response whereby governments, working with partners, can affordably speed up the delivery of sanitation services for all and confront one of the major public health issues facing the world’s cities. As new technologies become available, they will find their place in the constantly changing mix of sanitation services.