Water supply and sanitation services are important for a whole host of reasons – time saving, dignity, convenience, economic growth, – including of course, public health. Yet it remains difficult to evaluate the extent to which those services actually do change health outcomes. Public health is affected by many variables, which interact in complex ways.
While on its path to becoming the largest city in the Americas, Sao Paulo used its natural capital - water - to generate electricity, fuel industry, and satiate its ever-growing population. Natural infrastructure was traded for the concrete form and the city’s great rivers paid a high price for industrialization.
The result? Tremendous growth (averaging 5% per annum) that stimulated rapid and unplanned migration to the city and environmental pollution. Urban sprawl generated little to no infrastructure for managing water, sanitation and wastewater, or solid waste. Clearing the land for houses caused erosion and compacted soils, and the resulting increase in runoff has made an already wet city even more prone to floods.
The city of Windhoek is probably best known for the fact that it is the world pioneer of drinking water reclamation from purified sewage effluent.
Windhoek lies in the heart of Namibia, the most arid Country in Sub Saharan Africa. All existing water resources are optimally utilized in a number of different ways. Integrated Urban Water Management (IUWM) lies at the heart of these approaches, both in using water that is fit for purpose and in diversifying water sources.
- United States
- United Kingdom
- South Africa
- The World Region
- South Asia
- Middle East and North Africa
- Latin America & Caribbean
- Europe and Central Asia
- East Asia and Pacific
- Communities and Human Settlements
Pakistan’s population of nearly 181 million is growing at 2% per year; this population explosion has resulted in the country meeting the international definition of water stress—water availability in Pakistan has plummeted from about 5,000 cubic meters per capita in the early 1950s to less than 1,100 m3 per capita in 2011.
This ominous, mounting water paucity impairs the lives of Pakistan’s rural women, who bear the arduous responsibility of collecting and providing water for their households. The absence of a safe water supply at or near their homes—and the resulting need to walk up to 4 km or more to get water each day—has aggravated the burden of women’s duties in many ways, making them vulnerable in terms of both their health and personal safety.
Rural women are the worst victims of water scarcity; however, in some communities, evidence indicates that women are emerging as a “herald of change.”
All climate negotiations have been based on staying below 2°C above pre-industrial temperatures. Yet it looks increasingly unlikely that that will be possible. A new report, Turn Down the Heat: Why a 4°C Warmer World Must be Avoided, suggests that there is a 40 percent chance that we will reach 4°C by 2100 even if we stick to the agreed emission reduction commitments.
What does water look like in a 4°C world?
Put simply: it's complex. Water is a complicated system and one of the major impacts of climate change is the effect on the hydrological (water) cycle. These impacts will coincide with an unprecedented increase in demand for water because of population and economic growth.
They both hold the potential to help meet the needs of the poor and end poverty. New ideas and innovative solutions are critical to address the 2.5 billion people who lack access to proper sanitation. Lack of access to clean water and sanitation kills more than 4,000 children a day and a lack of sanitation results in billions of dollars in economic losses to developing countries. Now that more people have access to a mobile phone than to a toilet or latrine, it’s time to leverage technology to help reach development goals.
“Superstorm” Sandy passed through the northeast United States earlier this week. High winds and heavy rains caused considerable damage, particularly in New Jersey and New York. High winds damaged buildings and knocked down trees and branches. Falling trees and branches caused more damage, including falling on electrical and telephone wires, breaking them and causing widespread power outages. Further, the winds north of the storm’s center pushed already high tides into repeated surges, some as much as 4.5 m (over 13 feet) above normal high tide. Coastal areas, including parts of Manhattan, were submerged; road and subway tunnels filled with water. Heavy rains caused additional flooding along rivers and coastlines.
The overwhelming theme of the IWA conference in Busan Korea this week is to enable societies to get more value from their water systems. Highly technical events that focus on the latest science aimed at the most sophisticated systems discuss ways to generate electricity from the flow of water in the pipes, how to extract energy from the sewage and how to safely re-use and cheaply desalinate water. Sessions on basic access with a focus on Africa are stressing integrating water into urban design to build cheaper, more robust water systems. IWA uses the term "the water machine" and advocates a new way of thinking about water, where "single use" water is a thing of the past, and the pipes produce energy, nutrients, and water that is "fit for purpose." In this vision we will no longer use drinking water as a vehicle to move feces from one place to another.
At a session at the IWA conference in Busan, Korea, panelists debated the current thinking about public and private roles in supply chain management. All agreed that any sense of dichotomy was, as dichotomies often are, completely false. All utilities operate on a continuum. Even wholly public utilities subcontract some aspects of their work, whether it's the coding of their billing system or their catering services. And even so-called wholly private models rely on public agencies for some functions.