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urbanization

Re-awakening Kinshasa’s Splendor Through Targeted Urban Interventions

Sameh Wahba's picture
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The district of Gombe from above. Photo: Dina Ranarifidy/World Bank


While traveling from the Ndjili Airport to the city center of Kinshasa, you will be introduced to a unique urban experience. The ambient chaos, high traffic congestion and crowded streets may remind you of other African cities, but in Kinshasa—Kin as locals fondly refer to her—everything is larger, faster and louder than life.

The Democratic Republic of Congo’s capital is a festival of the senses; a dynamic amalgam of people and places that mix the rich and poor, blending the activities of people with opportunities and people fighting for survival, where fancy multi-story buildings are erected just miles away from massive slums. Although poverty is apparent, the lust for life, the vibrancy of local cultures, and the vivid manifestation of cultural expressions thrive among the Kinois.

Understanding the informal economy in African cities: Recent evidence from Greater Kampala

Angus Morgan Kathage's picture
Informal metal worker in Katwe, Kampala. Photo: Angus Morgan Kathage/World Bank

The informal sector is a large part of employment in African cities. The International Labour Organization estimates that more than 66% of total employment in Sub-Saharan African is in the informal sector. With a pervasive informal sector, city governments have been struggling with how best to respond. On the one hand, a large informal sector often adds to city congestion, through informal vending and transport services, and does not contribute to city revenue. Furthermore, informal enterprises are typically characterized by low productivity, low wages and non-exportable goods and services. On the other hand, the informal sector provides crucial livelihoods to the most vulnerable of the urban poor. 

Urbanization in Nigeria: Planning for the Unplanned

Salim Rouhana's picture
Since 2011, when floods destroyed the bridge that once stood here, the only way members of this Ibadan community can cross the river is by walking across it when the water is low. As the river grows during the rainy season, the community remains separated from the city. © Ivan Bruce, World Bank



“City plans must fit the people, not the other way round.” Jane Jacobs, journalist and urban studies author

Ibadan,  the third largest metropolitan area in Nigeria after Lagos and Kano,  has organically grown from around 60,000 inhabitants in the early 1800’s to more than three million today, and is projected to reach 5.6 million by 2033. The city’s urban footprint continues to sprawl due to weak land use planning that leads to the proliferation of informal settlements in flood prone areas. 

What will Kenya’s urban future look like for newborns James and Maureen?

Dean Cira's picture



Last year two of my friends welcomed new babies into their families: James and Maureen (not their real names). Both babies were born in Metropolitan Nairobi - the fastest growing urban area in the country. Their births added to the growing urban popluation in Kenya, which will double to 24 million by 2035 and more than triple to 40 million by 2050. The Kenya Urbanization Review projects that by that time, that there will be nearly as many Kenyans living in urban areas as there are Kenyans today. Kenya’s urban transition has begun.