Very good to remind people of this major challenge, but is there any political will or social consensus for change? When we raised these issues in the 2005/6 Investment Climate Assessment as a long-term economic liability, we were told by counterparts that qat use was ingrained in local culture and its harm exaggerated. At the time, qat cultivation was believed to consume a third of Yemen's scarce groundwater, to reduce productivity by 25% and to consume between on quarter and one third of poor family's incomes. Another aspect is corruption -- qat is a nickname for bribes and a destination for many informal payments to officials. Poorly paid officials with an expensive daily habit is a poor recipe for integrity.