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  • Reply to: Who Benefits from a Higher Minimum Wage in the Egyptian Public Sector?   1 day 16 hours ago

    Excellent post. It is applicable to many counties around the world.

    As you discuss alternatives to the minimum wage in the post, you mention self-targeted programs such as public works. That makes perfect sense, but you point to the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) in India, and I found that surprising. While NREGA has the name recognition, it's not necessarily the self-targeted public works program that Egypy should aspire towards. There are other more positive examples. Take for example, the Latvia public works program, which was implemented to mitigate the impact of the 2008-2010 global financial crisis.

    Here are some highlights of the Latvia public works program (see

    • Almost 83 percent of Latvia's public works beneficiaries were in the bottom 20 percent of the welfare distribution and 96 percent of public works beneficiaries were in the bottom 40 percent of the welfare distribution. Those are very impressive targeting performance statistics by any safety net performance standard!

    • The public works program increased beneficiary household’s income by about 37 percent, which was crucial during the crisis. In other words, the program did what it was supposed to, namely it worked as a safety net during the crisis - as people lost their jobs, took home smaller paychecks, and lost some transfers (see

    • About a third of income was foregone income, because of the time commitment associated with public works. As we know, public works programs have an opportunity cost because of the time spent engaged in the program, but the foregone income estimated in Latvia was relatively low.

    While context matters, we now have a broad range of public works program performances to draw from to help policymakers benchmark their own country's progress.

  • Reply to: Three Funerals and a Wedding: Resetting the way we work on migration   3 days 1 hour ago

    I agree completely with your views on promoting greater mobility for the unskilled and do hope we succeed in elevating it as a priority for us in the WB.

  • Reply to: New technology changes the working day, offering a strategy for more jobs in the Middle East   1 week 3 hours ago

    Independent work would be a great way to keep the youth employed. Something is better than nothing and with the high speed internet on the wheels , I hope that a better and secure tomorrow is not far away for the youth!

  • Reply to: Syrian Crisis: Seeing Conflict Through Art   1 week 3 days ago

    Arts and Literature have always been ' Mirror of the society '
    as has been portrayed in the Syrian arts. It has always played a vital role in the development and better comprehension of the social issues and the work of the Syrian artist depicts the same and is appreciable.

  • Reply to: Trucks, tankers, camels and salt all ply the Djibouti-Ethiopia trade corridor   2 weeks 17 hours ago

    i apprciate you because of your effort to develop ethiopia you are contribute your own role