As we celebrate our first year of the Development Impact blog, we thought it would be a good time to take stock and see what our readers would like in our second year. We’ve already done our survey work and RCT, so now its time for direct, self-selected, feedback from you, the reader. We want to know:
The phenomenal success of Kenya’s M-PESA system, which allows people to store and transfer funds via electronic accounts that they access via mobile phones, has raised hopes that mobile money may provide a way for the poor to access basic banking services. In an earlier post, I presented findings from my recent working paper with Aaron Thegeya, showing that a remarkable 73% of Kenyan adults use mobile money, and nearly a quarter use it every day.
We also show that savings with a simple M-PESA account is common, with 2/3 of M-PESA users reporting that they save in some form with M-PESA. We see some mild evidence that M-PESA may increase savings: controlling for various characteristics, those who are registered for M-PESA are 32 percent more likely to report some savings activity.
Why do people save with M-PESA when it doesn’t pay interest? A possible explanation comes from an experimental study on health savings (not involving M-PESA).
Let me start by sharing a telling anecdote: “At her first job in Tokyo in the 1970s, Ms Yukako Uchinaga hid in the ladies' room every day at 8pm while an inspector made sure all female employees had gone home. Then she came out and put in more hours. "My boss used to say, 'I don't want to be put in jail'," said Ms Uchinaga … referring to a labor law that capped women's overtime at two hours a day. "I complained it was unfair, like being in a 100-metre race with my hands and feet tied while all my male colleagues ran freely.”
According to Bloomberg, women occupy just 1 in 70 management positions at Japanese companies.
And according to the World Bank Group's Enterprise Surveys, which collect firm level data across 125 economies, only every fifth firm has a female as top manager. Even top tier Fortune 500 companies are not so balanced in gender parity with only 18 out of 500, or 4 % of their top executives being female.
Women don’t have enough time to climb the corporate ladder.
According to the World Bank Group’s report Women, Business and the Law 2012 the retirement age for women comes earlier than for men in 52 economies (out of 141 covered). But, there is no economy, where the retirement age for men is earlier than for women. Moreover, according to the same report women cannot work the same night hours as men in 44 economies. Meanwhile, the average number of days mandated by law for maternity leave is 106, while the average number of days mandated for paternity leave is only 3. The Math is self-evident.
The Euro 2012 soccer championships, which are being held in both Poland and Ukraine, have given infrastructure financing fans interesting things to think about. As with any major sports event, roads, stadiums, hotels, airports need to be built or refurbished. How the two governments do this might provide some interesting lessons on best practices.
I was particularly interested in how construction contracts are broken up before they’re bid out, especially if a public-private partnership (PPP) transaction is involved. Some governments prefer to issue one gigantic contract in a winner-take-all scenario. But if the job is too big, it limits competition to very large firms. On the other hand, if the same job is broken into several smaller contracts, then more firms have the resources to compete and costs are generally driven down.
Important developments today:
1. Financial market volatility is at its lowest since 2007
2. US manufacturing activity remains resilient amid contraction in Eurozone
Earlier this month, the World Bank hosted a Smart Cities for All workshop in Washington, DC which convened experts from the United Nations, academia, government agencies, non-profits and industry. The purpose of the workshop was to share insights and experiences of equipping cities with the tools for intelligent growth. Additionally, the forum established a public-private partnership for collaboration in pursuit of shared goals for global sustainability. But what does it mean to be a “smart city”? Is this distinction only reserved for cities starting from scratch? Can an established city boost its IQ?
First, we must take a step back to reflect upon what it means to be a “smart city.” While there is no official definition, many have contributed to this debate. Industry leaders, such as Seimens and IBM, believe that stronger use of technology and data will enable government leaders to make better informed decisions. Whereas others, including the Sustainable Cities Blog’s very own Dan Hoornweg, consider the social aspects as a component of what it means to be a smart city. In his blog, “Smart Cities for Dummies,” published last November, Dan contends: “At its core a smart city is a welcoming, inclusive city, an open city. By being forthright with citizens, with clear accountability, integrity, and fair and honest measures of progress, cities get smarter.” Though I agree with both the data-driven and socially-conscious approaches, I’d like to propose my own definition of a smart city.
Saleha Begum was determined. Over the last couple of years, a number of children in her village had tragically died, their families left behind shocked and shattered. Memories were all that remained of these young lives cut short, and Begum was now determined to do her bit to stop the untimely deaths and accidents caused by the proximity of a highway to a community school.
We had arrived at Baishakanda Union Parishad in Dhamrai just before the local community meeting started. (Union Parishads are the lowest tier of local government in Bangladesh.) Begum had already taken her place among men and women from her village. A number of women threw anxious looks toward her. That day, Begum was going to play a vital role in advancing their agenda.