The latest World Bank estimates suggest that the percentage of the developing world’s population living below $1.25 a day declined from 52% in 1981 to 22% in 2008. While this indicates that there is still a long way to go in poverty reduction, the progress is encouraging. Moreover, we now also appear to be in a much better position to make such statements. The numbers above, by my colleagues at the Department Research Group, are based on over 850 household surveys for nearly 130 developing countries, representing 90% of the population of the developing world. By contrast, they used only 22 surveys for 22 countries when the first such estimates were reported in the 1990 World Development Report.
Indoor smoke from cooking on an open fire has long been recognized as a major cause of ill health, especially for women and young children (those either most vulnerable or most likely to be exposed). Improved cooking stoves represent the hopes of development professionals in that their efficient design and vented smoke should improve health, lower mortality, and reduce fuel use.
Let’s talk trash, just for a few minutes. In the time it takes you to read this pithy blog, more than 14,000 tonnes of waste will be generated: that’s enough to fill the Pentagon in less than a day. More than 1.5 billion tonnes of trash will be generated this year alone. And if you’re inclined to read this blog again in 2025, the amount will have increased to 23,000 tonnes. The annual trash generated at that time will be more than 2.2 billion tonnes a year. That’s enough garbage to fill the Roman Coliseum 730 times, or a line of garbage trucks 900,000 km long, 23 times around the world. Last week’s release of What a Waste: A Global Review of Solid Waste Management summarizes the issue.
Our cities generate enormous amounts of waste, and they’re just getting started – volumes will likely to increase beyond 2100, and we should plan for about a peak volume, four times what we have today. In today’s dollars, annual waste management costs will eventually exceed $1 trillion, and this cost is almost entirely borne by cities (this amount, for example, eclipses any sort of financial contributions to deal with climate change now being discussed within UNFCCC negotiations). Clearly we have a problem. But why is this particularly relevant to the climate change community?
Jump-starting job growth through new approaches to Industrial Policy was the topic of the final public event convened by Justin Lin in his role as the Chief Economist of the World Bank, assembling a distinguished group of policymakers and policy-watchers – including one of his predecessors as Chief Economist: Nobel Prize-winner Joseph E. Stiglitz of Columbia University. The wide-ranging roundtable and forum, co-chaired by Lin and Stiglitz, brought Industrial Policy to the fore of the International Economic Association (IEA) agenda.
“From history, we know that all the successful countries . . . all benefited from government’s active participation” in economic development, Lin emphasized. Government has an indispensable role, he said, in helping facilitate the development of industries that can drive “continuous structural changes through technological innovation” through active Industrial Policy – thus leading to the kind of industrial upgrading and diversification that sustains long-term growth.
In a recent paper by myself and my colleague Megumi Kubota (forthcoming in the Journal of International Economics), we argue that the distinction between sudden stops caused by domestic versus foreign residents is crucial when we examine the effects of these types of episodes on economic performance and their policy implications. Identifying the relative importance of the shocks underlying these different types of sudden stops is essential. If sudden stops were, for instance, attributed to reduced inflows by foreigners, policymakers should minimize the country’s vulnerability to external shocks. The policy advice would be different, however, if net reversals in capital flows are explained by gross outflows of domestic residents looking for better risk-taking opportunities abroad.
The World Bank’s Global Economic Prospects (GEP) – "Managing Growth in a Volatile World" was released earlier today. In this blog posting, I highlight some of the interesting baseline forecasts numbers as well as some alternative plausible outcomes emanating from a Euro zone crisis.
Growth is expected to slow in 2012, before picking up slowly ...
As the Caribbean region gears up to collectively brainstorm on how to make our economies prosper, I think it's only fitting to discuss here one growth driver that, in my view, has largely been neglected: The cultural and creative industries.
Sondeando el aprendizaje móvil alrededor del mundo (parte uno)
Hace cerca de cuatro años, el programa del Banco Mundial infoDev aseguró el financiamiento para hacer un ‘sondeo global del uso de móviles en la educación en países en vías de desarrollo’, con base en la creencia de que la creciente disponibilidad de los pequeños dispositivos conectados, más conocidos como ‘teléfonos móviles’, iba a tener cada vez mayor relevancia para los sistemas escolares alrededor del mundo. Cuando vimos lo que estaba ocurriendo en este sentido en la mayor parte del mundo, observamos que (aún) no estaba pasando nada efectivamente, y así concluimos que no sería todavía demasiado útil hacer un sondeo global de conocimiento experto sobre la potencial relevancia futura del uso de teléfonos móviles en la educación. Por esto, así como por lamentables retrasos burocráticos internos, terminamos abandonando este proyecto de investigación, con la esperanza de que otros pudieran continuar un trabajo similar cuando el tiempo fuese propicio. (El financiamiento se reprogramó para apoyar a EVOKE, el ‘juego serio’ en línea del Banco Mundial. La segunda versión del mismo está programada para lanzarse en setiembre en portugués e inglés, tanto para PCs como para móviles, con un énfasis especial en Brasil.) Unas cuantas organizaciones involucradas en la Alianza de m-Educación, un esfuerzo internacional de colaboración en el que participa el Banco Mundial para explorar intersecciones de punta entre móviles, educación y desarrollo, y para promover el uso compartido de conocimiento colectivo, recién ha publicado unos breves ensayos que han logrado gran parte de lo que se quiso hacer con este tipo de sondeos. Echaremos una mirada a estos esfuerzos esta semana en el blog EduTech: el primero de ellos es dirigido por UNESCO, el segundo por la Fundación Mastercard, que trabaja con la Asociación GSM.
- East Asia and Pacific
- EduTech Debate
- Europe and Central Asia
- Information and Communication Technologies
- Latin America & Caribbean
- Mastercard Foundation
- mEducation Alliance
- Middle East and North Africa
- Mobile Phones
- Rest Of The World
- Information and Communication Technologies
- The World Region
There’s a clutch of different research initiatives trying to understand Africa’s political economy and its impact on development and aid. Often, the tone of the political economists can be quite discouraging – Alex Duncan gives a tongue-in-cheek definition of a political economist as ‘someone coming to explain why your aid programme doesn’t work’. There are few practical ‘take aways’ either for large bilateral aid agencies, or NGOs other than ‘give up and become a researcher’.
And that’s pretty much the tone of a logotastic ‘joint statement’ from 5 research programmes based (loosely) in the UK, Denmark, and the Netherlands (The Africa Power and Politics Programme, Developmental Leadership Programme, Elites, Production and Poverty: A Comparative Analysis, Political Economy of Agricultural Policy in Africa, Tracking Development). Here’s some highlights:
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Latin America will attend the Rio+20 conferences safe in the knowledge that they have done a good job over the past few years, but with the shared international need to keep pushing for environmental policies which will help create a more sustainable world.
The region is home to examples of world-class innovative projects, but also faces far-reaching challenges for the future in terms of green growth. The decisions that we take today will shape development for the next 20 or 30 years, according to this video blog from Ede Ijjasz-Vasquez, Director for Sustainable Development for Latin America and the Caribbean.