“You are moving from a continent that, 20 years ago, had a small and very wealthy top and a broad base of poverty with no middle market, to one that is developing one of the largest mass markets in the world – Africa will be the equivalent of China.”
- Ariane de Rothschild, Vice-Chairman of Edmond de Rotschild.
I have been somewhat skeptical about the application of impact evaluations to justice reform activities but I’m coming around to their utility for a limited – yet important – set of questions. The basic method behind impact evaluations – establishing a counterfactual in order to attribute net impact – is fairly new to justice so I thought I’d set out some ideas that might be worth considering in developing this nascent field.
Poverty has been a concern in societies even before the beginning of recorded history. In the past three decades extreme poverty in the world has decreased significantly. More than half of population in the developing world lived on less than $1.25 a day in 1981. This has dropped to 21% in 2010. More impressively, notwithstanding a 59% increase in population in developing countries, there were 1.2 people living on less than $1.25 a day in 2010, compared with 1.9 billion decades ago. However, the challenge of poverty reduction ahead remains daunting with 1.2 billion still living in extreme poverty. Freeing the world from poverty is perhaps the most important economic goal for the world today. More than a hundred countries are still not able to move away from high poverty traps.
- weekly roundup
"How can I unpivot or transpose my tabular data so that there's only one record per row?"
I see this question a lot and I thought it was worth a quick Friday blog post.
Data often aren’t quite in the format that you want. We usually provide CSV / XLS access to our data in “pivoted” or “normalized” form so they look like this:
But for a lot analyses and applications, particularly data visualisation tools like D3, ggplot2, Tableau, it’s more convenient to have your data “unpivoted” or “denormalized” so it looks like this:
Although this is less space efficient, space is cheap, and it means there’s always only one record per row, so you can use simple functions to access and filter data.
Here are three ways to “unpivot” or “denormalize” your data - in effect, to transpose columns to rows and have one complete record per row.
The results suggest strangely mixed conclusions. In certain ways, poverty trends in Nigeria over the past decade were better than has been widely reported, where a story of increasing poverty has been the consensus. And yet poverty is stubbornly high, disappointingly so given growth rates.
Three facts stand out.
The greatest development challenge facing Sub-Saharan Africa today is lifting 400 million of its people out of extreme poverty. The continent has abundant land and mineral resources to meet the challenge, but only if land governance can be improved. A new study, Securing Africa’s Land for Shared Prosperity, offers a ten-point program to improve land governance by accelerating policy reforms and boosting investments at a cost of US $4.5 billion over 10 years.
Can a ramp for people with disabilities make a difference in a big city? The answer may seem obvious to many, but I encourage you to read on to find out the complexities and nuances surrounding the issue of mobility in a large Latin American metropolis. This is a true story. I was attending the launch of a project “Mainstreaming Inclusive Design and Universal Mobility in Lima ”project - financed by the Japan Policy and Human Resources Development (PHRD) program and I was surprised to see people in wheelchairs asked to move away from the table where coffee, pastries and fruit were being served during the break.
At the same time blind, deaf and people with cognitive impairments, among other disabilities, were being actively welcomed.