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February 2014

Migration, Security and Development: Understanding the Linkages

Khalid Koser's picture

Migration, security, and development are inextricably linked. Understanding these linkages is important to correct public misperceptions as well as promote more effective policies; but they have largely defied research and analysis to date. KNOMAD Thematic Working Group on Migration, Security, and Development seeks to articulate an analytical framework on the linkages, drawing on a range of existing empirical case studies.

It is clear that migration, security and development are linked. Policies in one arena can promote positive outcomes in another. For example secure borders are an integral component of well-managed migration, which in turn can help match migrants’ skills to labour market demands, while also empowering migrants to contribute to development in their countries of origin. Equally, and especially where policy is poorly coordinated, unintended consequences can ensue. While numerous factors contribute to the global growth of migrant smuggling, there is strong research evidence that smugglers may profit when border controls tighten, in turn exposing migrants to risk, exploitation and vulnerability.

Challenges for Rural Primary Education through Satellite Technology in India

Abhilaksh Likhi's picture

The Famous Brazilian educator Paulo Freire opined that education in developing countries is conceived and practiced as a form of ‘banking’. Herein, the teacher, as the communicator, makes deposits that the students patiently receive, memorize and repeat. The latter, he believed, serves to increase the recipients’ dependence on the educator. He, thus, advocated a more liberating approach in which engagement with education functioned as a dialogue. Herein, the educator participated and generated access for students to imbibe knowledge that was truly self- fulfilling.

Teaching in India’s government primary schools in rural areas has often been argued to be in the bind of such ‘banking education’. In addition, since the country’s independence in 1947, these schools have faced institutional constraints pertaining to infrastructure, maintenance, teacher recruitment, curriculum capacity and training. Educational expenditure as a percentage of GDP rose from 3% in 2004-05 to over 4% in 2011-12. In the 11th Five Year Plan period, 43% of the public expenditure was incurred for primary education (elementary stage from Grade I-V and upper primary from Grade VI-VIII).The modest gains of Operation Blackboard  and the National Education Policy , of the late 80’s, have been carried forward under the more ambitious flagship program Sarva Siksha Abhiyan (SSA). Besides, the Right to Education Act (RTE) has also been invoked. Against an estimated child population of 192 million in the 6-14 age group, 195 million children have been enrolled at the elementary stage in 2009-10. In addition to enhancing learning levels, SSA also intends to fill infrastructural gaps and bridge gender differences in rural schools.

Tracking the causes of Eurozone external imbalances: New evidence

Aristomene Varoudakis's picture

The Eurozone sovereign debt crisis, triggered by the 2008–09 global financial crisis, exposed macroeconomic imbalances in member countries that had accrued gradually following the advent of the euro in 1999. The growing current-account deficits in the Eurozone periphery and surpluses in the core were a main symptom of these imbalances (Figure 1).1 These patterns of intra-Eurozone current-account imbalances led to the accumulation of large external debts in the Eurozone periphery, matched by growing claims held by commercial banks in the core.

Of happy and sad faces: How poverty and changing gender norms impact Roma communities

Valerie Morrica's picture
When we carried out focus group discussions in four Roma communities in Bulgaria for our study on Gender Dimensions of Roma Inclusion, we asked Roma men and women to indicate their overall level of happiness on a scale from 1 to 10. A 10, represented by a smiley face, meant they were “very happy.” A 1 was depicted by a sad face and meant they were “very unhappy.”

What we found from this survey stunned us: most Roma women answered that they were “happy” or “very happy” and the majority of Roma men had circled the sad face. We did not expect this outcome. In fact, we had expected to find the exact opposite.

On the surface, our research confirmed several common perceptions – especially concerning gender norms.

So why, then, do Roma women seem to be much happier than Roma men?

Quote of the Week: Olav Thon

Sina Odugbemi's picture

 "You can’t feed a cat with cream and food in the kitchen and expect him to go catch mice."

 - Olav Thon, a Norwegian real estate developer and billionaire, who worked his way from being a poor farm boy to Norway’s wealthiest resident.  He is listed in the Forbes list of billionaires as the 198th richest person in the world and is nicknamed "the fox."

 

Equilibrium Credit: Providing Not Too Much, Not Too Little Credit to the Economy

Martin Melecky's picture

Credit is actively used by only about 8 percent of people in developing countries and about 14 percent in developed countries (World Bank Findex). The observed gaps in financial inclusion thus suggest that greater access to credit is warranted.

However, finance can be a double-edged sword. Rapid financial development and deepening can cause accumulation of systemic risk and lead to costly financial crises (Reinhart and Rogoff 2009). Banking crises in Thailand (1997), Colombia (1982), and Ukraine (2008), for example, were preceded by excessive credit growth of 25 percent, 40 percent, and 70 percent per year, respectively. Providing the right amount of credit—not too much and not too little—is thus a major concern for countries and their policy makers.

When credit provision becomes excessive or insufficient is judged against an unobserved benchmark known as equilibrium credit. Estimating equilibrium credit is one of the most challenging tasks of determining excessive or insufficient credit provision.

The quality of education in MENA: Some good news

Farrukh Iqbal's picture
 Some good news

In some respects, the Middle East and North Africa region has a very strong record in the area of education.  For example, if we rank countries by increases in the average number of years of schooling between 1980 and 2010, nine of the top twenty are from the MENA region. This good performance in the quantity of education stands in sharp contrast to the comparatively weak performance of the region in sustaining high economic growth over the last three decades.

The Hawthorne Effect: What Do We Really Learn from Watching Teachers (and Others)?

David Evans's picture
We are delighted that Dave Evans has agreed to be a semi-regular contributor to this blog, agreeing to post about once a month. David is a Senior Economist in the Chief Economist's Office for the Africa region of the World Bank, and coordinates impact evaluation work across sectors in the Africa region.


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