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April 2017

How one reform can lead to more: The spillover impact of legal reform in Bangladesh

S. Akhtar Mahmood's picture

Business reforms have an impact not only on businesses, and thereby on the economy and society, but also within government. When one part of government carries out a reform, it is noticed by others in government – and sometimes dynamics are created that lead to even more reforms.

Such a spillover impact can happen within the same government office that pursued the initial reform, or it can occur in other agencies, including those working in unrelated areas. Often the multiplier effect is unanticipated and the wider impact may not happen automatically. Project teams that support the initial reform may need to do something extra to nudge the dynamics in the right direction.

Back in 2008, the International Finance Corporation (IFC) was approached by the Bangladesh chapter of the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC-B) for support in bringing its ambitious idea of arbitration into practice. Three years of rigorous preparatory work – including due diligence of market demand, learning about global experience, and socializing the idea among stakeholders in Bangladesh – led to the establishment of the Bangladesh International Arbitration Center (BIAC) in 2011.

This initiative – through an IFC-supported consortium of three premier business chambers: ICC-B, the Dhaka Chamber of Commerce and Industries (DCCI) and the Metropolitan Chamber of Commerce – was an important milestone in itself. But there was more to come.


 

From establishing a facility to changing the law

During project design, the implementing team thought that establishing and operationalizing BIAC would be sufficient for introducing ADR in Bangladesh. Implementation, however, had more sobering lessons. It quickly became apparent that, for BIAC to succeed, changes would also be required in the legal and regulatory environment governing dispute resolution. As the organization’s credibility was critical to its operational success, the team initiated discussions with the Ministry of Law (MoL) to win its support for the enactment of regulatory and legislative changes, as well as the endorsement of BIAC rules.

Review of Doughnut Economics – a new book you will need to know about

Duncan Green's picture

https://flic.kr/p/9XqtbSMy Exfam colleague Kate Raworth’s book Doughnut Economics is launched today, and I think it’s going to be big. Not sure just how big, or whether I agree with George Monbiot’s superbly OTT plug comparing it to Keynes’s General Theory. It’s really hard to tell, as a non-economist, just how paradigm-changing it will be, but I loved it, and I want everyone to read it.

Down to business – what does it say? The subtitle, ‘Seven Ways to Think Like a 21st Century Economist’, sets out the intention: the book identifies 7 major flaws in traditional economic thinking, and a chapter on each on how to fix them. The starting point is drawings – working with Kate was fun, because whereas I think almost entirely in words, she has a highly visual imagination – she was always messing around with mind maps and doodles. And she’s onto something, because it’s the diagrams that act as visual frames, shaping the way we understand the world and absorb/reject new ideas and fresh evidence. Think of the way every economist you know starts drawing supply and demand curves at the slightest encouragement.

Toward water and sanitation for all: Featuring Matt Damon, co-founder of Water.org

Brittany Scalise's picture
Matt Damon urges ministers to move aggressively toward water and sanitation for all.
Watch his full remarks: http://live.worldbank.org/water-and-sanitation



Last week, on April 20th, Matt Damon, co-founder of Water.org, addressed ministers of finance, water, and sanitation from across the world at the Sanitation and Water for All (SWA) Finance Ministers’ High Level Meeting at the 2017 World Bank-IMF Spring Meetings. The meeting focused on finding ways to fill the enormous financing gap via innovative financial solutions. Mr. Damon urged ministers to consider the full breadth of financing options to achieve the goal of providing safe, affordable, and sustainable water and sanitation for all.

Can government subsidies spur science-industry collaboration and innovation?

Miriam Bruhn's picture

Efforts to foster collaboration between science and industry have long been a part of innovation policy in many countries. Firms stand to benefit from accessing the specialized infrastructure and expertise available in universities. Researchers gain access to practical problems that can provide greater relevance for their research, and to industrial capabilities for manufacture and assistance in commercializing their ideas to take them to market. Yet, there are barriers that inhibit collaboration, including financing constraints, information asymmetries, and transaction costs in negotiating collaboration agreements.

Making innovation benefit all: Policies for inclusive growth

Caroline Paunov's picture

“Inclusive growth” has been at the forefront of policy discussions in OECD and non-OECD economies. These discussions reflect a concern that economic growth does not necessarily improve the welfare of all citizens as income inequalities have risen to unprecedented levels over the past decades. The richest 10% of the population in the OECD area earn almost ten times more than the poorest 10%.
 
Throughout history, innovation has been the main engine of improved living standards and the current period of digital innovation offers similar opportunities. At the same time, periods of substantial technological change are known to be highly disruptive as new technologies render old technologies obsolete. This process creates winners but also losers within and across countries.

Quote of the week: Zadie Smith

Sina Odugbemi's picture

“There is a line of Salman Rushdie’s, I think it’s an essay, where he says: our lives teach us who we are. And I think that’s the case. It’s not that you have a set identity, it’s that by your actions you find out what sort of person you are. And the news is not always…lovely.”  

- Zadie Smith - novelist, short story writer, essayist, and a tenured professor in the Creative Writing Program at New York University.

Quoted in Financial Times Weekend print edition November 12, 2016 "Lunch with the FT Zadie Smith" by Jan Dalley

Financing the ‘last mile’ in global polio eradication

Oleg Kucheryavenko's picture
A health worker vaccinates a child for polio. Photo © Dominic Chavez/World Bank



Thirty years ago, polio affected nearly 350,000 people per year across 125 countries. Today, the poliovirus is circulating in only two countries, Afghanistan and Pakistan, where five new cases have been reported so far in 2017. But progress to eliminate polio in the region has been difficult, particularly in North-West Pakistan, an area affected by deadly flooding, ongoing conflict, and attacks against vaccine health workers.

Every data point has a human story

Raka Banerjee's picture


Good data leads to good policy, which means better lives for people around the world. But where does data come from? And what’s really going on behind the scenes to arrive at these all-important numbers? A new PBS documentary called The Crowd and the Cloud brings data to life by showing us the real lives behind the data points and the hard work that it takes to turn a human story into a statistic.

Hosted by former NASA Chief Scientist Waleed Abdalati and written and produced by Geoff Haines-Stiles (Senior Producer of COSMOS with Carl Sagan), The Crowd and the Cloud is a four-part documentary that examines the rapidly growing field of citizen data science, showing how regular citizens are increasingly able to gather and share valuable data on the environment, public health, climate change, and economic development.

Episode 4: Citizens4Earth follows Talip Kilic from the World Bank’s Living Standards Measurement Study program as he travels to far-flung rural communities in central and southwestern Uganda, along with the survey teams for the Uganda National Panel Survey (UNPS). In the episode, James Muwonge (Director of Socioeconomic Surveys at the Uganda Bureau of Statistics) explains why household surveys like the UNPS are so important for investment decisions and policy-making, particularly in developing countries like Uganda.

A new commitment to household surveys at the World Bank

Household surveys are crucial for monitoring progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals and the Bank’s twin goals of ending global extreme poverty by 2030 and boosting shared prosperity. However, we still face significant challenges around the world in terms of data availability - among the 155 countries for which the World Bank monitors poverty data, half lacked sufficient data for measuring poverty between 2002 and 2011. In response, the World Bank has committed itself to reversing this dismal state of affairs: in October 2015, World Bank President Jim Yong Kim announced that the Bank would support the 78 poorest countries in conducting an LSMS-type household survey every 3 years.

The importance of study design (why did a CCT program have no effects on schooling or HIV?)

Berk Ozler's picture

A recent paper in Lancet Global Health found that generous conditional cash transfers to female secondary school students had no effect on their school attendance, dropout rates, HIV incidence, or HSV-2 (herpes simplex virus – type 2) incidence. What happened?

Chart: Global CO2 Emissions Rose 60% between 1990 and 2013

Tariq Khokhar's picture

 

Global emissions of carbon dioxide, a major greenhouse gas and driver of climate change, increased from 22.4 billion metric tons in 1990 to 35.8 billion in 2013, a rise of 60 percent. The increase in CO2 emissions and other greenhouse gases has contributed to a rise of about 0.8 degrees Celsius in mean global temperature above pre-industrial times.

Read more in "The 2017 Atlas of Sustainable Development Goals: a new visual guide to data and development"
 


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