Adding complexity, the jobs challenge is also a concern for today. And as the trends of urbanization continue, scores of internal migrants are searching for work, but can’t find quality, waged jobs, nor do they have the skills demanded by the markets. As a result, too many people are left on the economic sidelines and are limited in what they can contribute to their countries’ growth.
. Despite strong growth, job creation remains weak and is often of poor quality.
This is especially true for India, which grew at a rate of 7.2 percent in 2017 and which managed to reduce the number of poor people considerably.
But the growth of new job opportunities is below what many had hoped for; . Strong population growth also puts pressure on labor markets, with millions of Indians entering the job market every year.
. And those who work often do so only in the informal sector, which is larger than in any other region in the world. Some groups, like women or workers in rural areas, are at particularly high risk of having to work in the informal economy, where wages are often lower.
Meanwhile, trade in goods as a share of the economy is much lower than in other regions. The trends in India and much of South Asia differ from other regions, where trade, growth, and jobs are directly connected and go hand in hand.
This South Asian paradox raises the question of how governments can boost job growth, and how to raise the quality of new jobs so that economic development brings more shared prosperity.
, job creation and shared prosperity.
Gaza is one of the most fragile places in the world. Its 2 million people have lived under a blockade since 2007. Crammed within an area of only 365 square kilometers—about the size of Philadelphia—its mostly young and educated population has few economic opportunities, with unemployment topping 50 percent. As GDP per capita falls, more than half of its people have sunk below the poverty line, with few opportunities for prosperity. Only donor support is keeping the economy afloat.
In addition to that, Gaza is constrained by limited access to power—with only four hours per day of electricity. That creates a huge burden to ordinary people, who are forced to plan around the power schedule. But the lack of power is also crushing the life out of the manufacturing sector, which previously served as a major source of employment in Gaza. So, can we in the international development community do something to address this problem?
When Amr Abdellah Aly, a department manager at the Electricity Ministry in Egypt, returned home from the Summer Institute in California training course at last year, his first question to his supervisors was if they had a communications strategy in place for the efforts of reforms in the electricity sector. His goal was to stress on the important role of communications throughout the reform process, something he had just learned from the course.
Each summer, the World Bank collaborates with the Annenberg School for Communication at the University of Pennsylvania and the Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism at the University of Southern California to offer the executive education course on reform communication: Leadership, strategy and stakeholder alignment.
The recent Transforming Transportation 2019 conference paid a great deal of attention to the applications and benefits of AFC, which have been at the heart of many World Bank and IFC-supported urban mobility projects.
For users, the development of AFC is a critical step toward making public transport more efficient, affordable, and accessible. The keywords here are integration and interoperability. AFC systems are now becoming compatible with an ever-increasing number of payment methods besides smart cards —near-field communication devices (including smartphones), debit and credit cards, e-commerce platforms (e.g PayPal, AliPay), and even printed QR codes and SMS, opening the way for integration with other transport services such as bikeshare schemes, paratransit, or even carpooling services.
- urban transport planning
- shared mobility
- transport integration
- transport affordability
- fare integration
- mass transit
- public transport
- urban mobility
- urban transport
- sustainable mobility
- sustainable transport
- Sustainable Communities
- Information and Communication Technologies
- Urban Development
Do you think the world is becoming more equal for women at work? The recently published Women, Business and the Law 2019: A Decade of Reform gives us some insight. While achieving gender equality requires a broad range of efforts over time, the study focuses on the law as an important first step to providing an objective measure of how specific regulations affect women’s incentives to participate in economic activity.
What is captured in the Women, Business and the Law index?
The study introduces a new index structured around eight indicators that cover different stages of a woman’s working life, which have significant implications for the economic standing of women: Going Places, Starting a Job, Getting Paid, Getting Married, Having Children, Running a Business, Managing Assets and Getting a Pension.
8 Indicators that Measure How Laws Affect Women Through Their Working Lives
For instance, if a woman cannot leave her home without permission can she effectively look for a job or go on an interview? Even if she is hired, will she need to quit if she gets married or has children? Will she have to move to a lower paying job because she must balance work with caring for her family?
For several years, Ebola has been ravaging our continent, especially communities in Central and West Africa. It is exacting a severe human toll and causing significant economic losses in places already burdened by extreme poverty. My homeland, the Democratic Republic of Congo, is now battling its tenth Ebola outbreak since 1976.
Latin America this number is around 90 million people.
In this blog, I want to focus on the case of Haiti, where 93 percent of people (2.2 million households) cook with solid fuels and some 80 percent of urban households use charcoal as their primary cooking fuel. This fuel has implications on health – burning charcoal exposes cooks and family members to harmful Indoor Air Pollution (IAP) like PM2.5 and others – and on the environment, especially forests, since charcoal is made from wood.
The second edition of the Enquête Agricole de Conjoncture Intégrée aux Conditions de Vie des Ménages (EAC-I 17)—a nationally representative household survey covering a range of topics including agriculture, demography, education, food security, labor, livestock, savings, shocks—is now available.
For this survey, 8,390 households were visited twice each between 2017 and 2018, during post-planting and post-harvest periods of the agricultural season. Particular attention was paid to the measurement of agricultural income, a long-sought goal of the Ministry of Agriculture.
- Agriculture: 70% of households do not use improved seed varieties or phytosanitary products, and 44% of agricultural households use inorganic fertilizers.
- Credit: The primary reasons for taking out loans are, 1) to buy farm inputs, and 2) to help meet household consumption requirements.
- Education: There is a large educational gap between urban and rural populations. Around 75% of individuals aged 15–39 years are uneducated in rural areas, while only 29% are, in urban areas.
- Employment: Agriculture is the greatest source of employment in rural areas. Over 96 % of individuals aged 15–39 years are in fact employed in agriculture.
- Income: Crop production is by far the most important source of income, accounting for almost 50% of total income, followed by transfers (18%), and livestock and non-agricultural wages (12%).
- Livestock: Livestock are mainly kept for their income-generating by-products and their ability to work the fields.
- Labor: Household labor represents 92% of total labor farm labor.