Tobacco is arguably one of the most significant threats to public health we have ever faced. Since the publication of the landmark U.S. Surgeon General’s Report on Tobacco and Health in 1964, that provided evidence linking smoking to diseases of nearly all organs of the body (see graph below), the international community slowly began to realize that a century-long epidemic of cigarette smoking was causing an enormous, avoidable public health catastrophe across the world.
While many of the struggles that LGBTI people face are all too familiar – violence, stigma, discrimination – we’ve just returned from the fourth Global LGBTI Human Rights Conference in Uruguay full of stories of positive change. We’re invigorated about the increasing potential for the Bank to be a valuable partner to our clients and LGBTI citizens around the world.
What to do?
How do you strike a balance between the immediate needs of students *right now* and an education system's requirements to train teachers to help meet such needs over the long term?
The traditional approach to dealing with such a challenge in many places has been to focus primarily on pre-service training, gradually introducing new teachers into classrooms over many years who have prepared to teach the subject through dedicated courses of study at teacher training colleges, together with occasional in-service professional development activities for existing teachers (normally during holiday breaks). In Uruguay, it was recognized that the gap between the abilities and capacities of many teachers to teach English, and student needs to learn English (which became compulsory in 2008) was so huge in many parts of the country that they needed to do things differently than they had done in the past. Instead of having teachers learn English separately, might it be possible to have them learn alongside their students, in their own classrooms?
As it happens, almost a decade ago Uruguay began its ambitious and innovative Plan Ceibal, which (among other things, and as profiled in a number of previous posts on the EduTech blog) made this small South American nation the first country to connect all of its schools to the Internet and provide all primary school children with a free laptop.
Given the technical infrastructure and know-how that was developed under Plan Ceibal, Uruguayan policymakers asked themselves:
and all students have their own laptops,
might it be possible to offer high quality
English language instruction live over the Internet,
connecting to teachers many miles away from the schools?
The answer to this question, it would appear, is 'yes'. Working out of its remote teaching center in Buenos Aires, its global digital learning hub in the neighboring country of Argentina, the British Council is beaming out English lessons to children in hundreds of individual classrooms across Uruguay, complementing and supporting the work of local teachers in these same classrooms. This is not a 1-to-many broadcast of the sort commonly done in many countries through the use of broadcast television, but rather connects individual classrooms in Uruguay with individual teachers sitting in other places. Some of these English teachers are based in the Uruguayan capital of Montevideo, many others next door in Argentina, and still others much further afield -- including halfway around the world in the Philippines and the UK! Along the way, the capacity of local teachers, who continue to lead English classes on their own other days of the week, is developed, through their interactions with and observations of the remote teachers.
This blog was previously published in The World Post.
Talk about ‘growth’ in Latin America has become less upbeat today than a few years ago. That’s no surprise. For over a decade, average growth meant at least double the economic activity that we are seeing today.
Uruguay stands out in Latin America and the Caribbean for the significant and early progress it achieved in terms of social protection.
Now gaining global attention, Uruguay is pioneering an award-winning information system to reduce poverty and vulnerability. The system addresses challenges faced by many governments in targeting and coordinating social assistance and, with reduced costs from license-free software, it could soon be replicated in other countries.
(about 25% of its GDP, and over 80% of total public spending). While these resources have enabled great advances, the wide array of institutions responsible for deploying them creates coordination challenges.
How did Uruguayan firms perform, over the last 15 years, in the global marketplace?
Using the Trade Competitiveness Diagnostic Framework – which we presented today to the Uruguayan public and private sector – a World Bank team examined the performance of Uruguayan firms in global markets in terms of export growth, diversification, quality upgrading and survival;. The team presented a number of recommendations to increase integration and to gain from it.
The main findings of the report reveal the following:
- Exports have grown fast thanks to favorable external conditions, but also due to the dynamism of the private sector, as well as to sound trade and investment policies.
- Tailwinds due to high commodity prices helped export growth. Exports in gross and in value-added terms expanded at double-digit rates, and they expanded even faster among primary and resource-based products. The emblematic example is that of soybean exports, which stood at US$1.5 million in 2001 and which climbed to US$1.6 billion in 2014, making Uruguay an increasingly important player in the world market with a share of 3 percent of total exports.
- But it wasn’t just tailwinds. The private sector was dynamic enough to seize the opportunity of favorable conditions and penetrate 46 new markets between 2000 and 2013. In just one product, beef, exporters gained access to 30 new destinations, and they secured higher prices in top-quality markets on the back of smart entrepreneurship, quality upgrading and a longstanding government strategy of negotiating market access for the sector. In services, for example, modern, knowledge-intensive sectors such as ICT and other business services also grew at double-digit rates, increasing the knowledge content of the export bundle.
As countries prepare to meet at the G20 summit in Turkey next week, global growth and infrastructure needs will be at the top of decision makers’ concerns. And rightly so: Infrastructure – roads, bridges, ports, power plants, water supply – drive economic growth in many countries by facilitating manufacturing, services and trade. But it’s not just a matter of building more. To achieve good development on a planet stressed by climate change and diminishing natural resources, infrastructure needs to be sustainable.
Imagine if you could know where your steak was born, and all of the details about its life until it reached your plate. Since 2011, this has been possible with Uruguay’s national system for livestock information or Sistema Nacional de Información Ganadera (SNIG).
Why 100% traceability of cattle matters
The World Bank aided the development of SNIG, which became fully operational in 2004, as part of its support for Uruguay’s recovery from the Foot and Mouth Disease epidemic. The SNIG, which is a livestock registration system with more than 75,000 participants in the agricultural and industrial sectors, paved the way for Uruguay’s mandatory individual cattle traceability program. All animals born in September 2006 or later are required to be tagged with one visual ear tag and one radio frequency identification tag, both for traceability purposes. The novel system allowed Uruguay to become the only country in the Americas (and one of only a few in the world) with 100% traceability of cattle and allowed consumers, mainly in China, Europe and NAFTA areas to know the origin of the beef for health (fewer diseases with full tractability), social (ability to know that the cows were grass-fed) and environmental (sustainability of natural resources) reasons.
A boat trip from Port Elizabeth to Kingstown, in the Caribbean country of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, is a one-hour trip that locals take several times a day. It was during one of these journeys that the boat of Kamara Jerome, a young Vincentian fisherman, ran out of gas six miles from Bequia City in what is termed locally as the "Bequia Channel." While waiting for help with strong wind gusts and the sun on his head, the idea of developing a boat that would run with wind and solar energy was born. Soon after, the idea became a prototype; a boat using green technology was on the water making 20-year-old Jerome a winner of international innovation competitions and a role model to other Caribbean youth.
In Mexico, young engineer Daniel Gomez runs a multimillion bio-diesel company originally conceived as a research project for his high school chemistry class. Gomez and his partners - Guillermo Colunga, Antonio Lopez, and Mauricio Pareja - founded SOLBEN (Solutions in bio-energy in Spanish) in their early twenties.
Although Daniel and Kamara have different educational backgrounds, they do share one important skill, the ability to identify a problem, develop an innovative solution, and take it to the market. In other words, being an entrepreneur, an alternative to be economically active, that seems to work and not only for a few.
- Global Youth; youth
- Global Economy
- Financial Sector
- The World Region
- South Asia
- Middle East and North Africa
- Latin America & Caribbean
- Europe and Central Asia
- East Asia and Pacific
- Yemen, Republic of
- Western Sahara
- West Bank and Gaza
- Wallis and Futuna Islands
- Virgin Islands, US
- Virgin Islands, British
- Venezuela, Republica Bolivariana de
- United States Minor Outlying Islands
- United States
- United Kingdom
- United Arab Emirates
- Turks and Caicos Islands
- Trinidad and Tobago
- Taiwan, China
- Syrian Arab Republic
- Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands
- St. Vincent and the Grenadines
- St. Pierre & Miquelon
- St. Lucia
- St. Kitts and Nevis
- St. Helena
- Sri Lanka
- South Sudan
- South Africa
- Solomon Islands
- Slovak Republic
- Sierra Leone
- Saudi Arabia
- Sao Tome and Principe
- San Marino
- S. Georgia and S. Sandwich Islands
- Russian Federation
- Puerto Rico
- Papua New Guinea
- Northern Mariana Islands
- Norfolk Island
- New Zealand
- New Caledonia
- Netherlands Antilles
- Micronesia, Federated States of
- Marshall Islands
- Macedonia, former Yugoslav Republic of
- Macao SAR, China
- Lao People's Democratic Republic
- Kyrgyz Republic
- Korea, Republic of
- Korea, Democratic People's Republic of
- Jersey, C.I.
- Isle of Man
- Iran, Islamic Republic of
- Hong Kong SAR, China
- Holy See (Vatican City State)
- Heard and McDonald Islands
- Guernsey, C.I.
- Gambia, The
- French Southern Territories
- French Polynesia
- French Guiana
- Faroe Islands
- Falkland Islands (Malvinas)
- Equatorial Guinea
- El Salvador
- Egypt, Arab Republic of
- Dominican Republic
- Czech Republic
- Cote d'Ivoire
- Costa Rica
- Cook Islands
- Congo, Republic of
- Congo, Democratic Republic of
- Commonwealth of Independent States
- Cocos (Keeling) Islands
- Christmas Island
- Central African Republic
- Cayman Islands
- Cabo Verde
- Burkina Faso
- Brunei Darussalam
- British Indian Ocean Territory
- Bouvet Island
- Bosnia and Herzegovina
- Antigua and Barbuda
- American Samoa
- Bahamas, The
The other day I had the opportunity to participate in the annual CAF conference on Infrastructure, this time held in Mexico City. The conference featured CAF's new IDEAL report on the state of infrastructure in Latin America and the conference, attended by many decision and opinion makers from across LAC, was organized around findings of the report.
I had a few takeaways from the discussions, notably that (1) there is convergence on a range of key issues and (2) there are some important Bank messages that are unique: