Our starting point is to deal with what we know – and the biggest challenge that the future of work faces – and has faced for decades – is the vast numbers of people who live day to day on casual labor, not knowing from one week to the next if they will have a job and unable to plan ahead, let alone months rather than years, for their children’s prosperity. We call this the informal economy – and as with so much pseudo-technical language which erects barriers, the phrase fails to convey the abject state of purgatory to which it condemns millions of workers and their families around the world.
The World Region
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If the potential of public-private partnerships (PPPs) is to be realized, joint working within the public sector and between the public and private sectors needs to be improved.
Experience across the world has consistently identified that organizations find it difficult to effectively work together both within and across sectors. Issues of organizational objectives and priorities, individual and organizational sovereignty, status, power, resources, and culture act as barriers. This too often means that the potential outputs and outcomes from PPPs are not maximized.
A colleague stopped me by the elevators while I was leaving the office.
“Do you know of any paper on (some complicated adjustment) of standard errors?”
I tried to remember, but nothing came to mind – “No, why do you need it?”
“A reviewer is asking for a correction.”
I mechanically took off my glasses and started to rub my eyes – “But it will make no difference. And even if it does, wouldn’t it be trivial compared to the other errors in your data?”
“Yes, I know. But I can’t control those other errors, so I’m doing my best I can, where I can.”
This happens again and again — how many times have I been in his shoes? In my previous life as an applied micro-economist, I was happily delegating control of data quality to “survey professionals” — national statistical offices or international organizations involved in data collection, without much interest in looking at the nitty-gritty details of how those data were collected. It was only after I got directly involved in survey work that I realized the extent to which data quality is affected by myriad extrinsic factors, from the technical (survey standards, protocols, methodology) to the practical (a surprise rainstorm, buggy software, broken equipment) to the contextual (the credentials and incentives of the interviewers, proper training and piloting), and a universe of other factors which are obvious to data producers but usually obscure and typically hidden from data users.
Recent estimates place global annual non-revenue water (NRW), i.e. water produced but not billed because of commercial or physical losses, at 126 billion cubic meters. This translates to nearly $40 billion in annual losses on waste and foregone revenues—a sum, that even if a fraction could be recovered, would underpin a compelling market opportunity for private service companies and a boost to public water utilities’ sustainability.
A new joint initiative is aiming to drive declines in NRW faster, cheaper, and more sustainably by assisting water utilities to engage private companies in performance-based contracts (PBCs). The World Bank’s Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility (PPIAF) and the Bank’s Water Global Practice, in partnership with the International Water Association, analyzed 43 projects and determined that NRW initiatives supported by PBCs are 68 percent more effective compared to those undertaken by utilities alone, (see for example, Using Performance Based Contracts to Reduce NRW) and are systematically faster at reducing the rate of loss.
One of the encouraging signs that I pick up whenever I travel is the difference that technology is making to the lives of millions of marginalized people. In most cases it’s happening on a small, non-flashy scale in hundreds of different ways, quietly improving the opportunities that that have been denied to remote communities, women and young people for getting a foot on the ladder.
And because it is discreet and under the radar I dare as an optimist to suggest that we are at the beginning of something big – a slow tsunami of success. Let me give you some reasons why I believe this.
Saddled with weak political systems and ravaged by strife, According to the Overseas Development Institute, 58 percent of deaths from disasters between 2004 and 2014 occurred in countries with fragile contexts.
Yet, even as people in fragile, conflict and violence-affected countries struggle to cope with the growing dangers from natural disasters, the international donor community has been slow to respond, explains Thomas Lennartz of the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR). Tellingly between 2005 and 2010, for every $100 spent on humanitarian assistance to these countries, only $1.30 was spent on disaster risk management (DRM).
So what can be done to help close this funding gap? In this video from the 2018 Understanding Risk Forum, hosted by GFDRR and the World Bank, Lennartz offers his take – and shares a few insights on GFDRR’s emerging DRM portfolio in fragile, conflict and violence-affected countries.
, which can help people escape poverty.
A paved road can lead to a world of possibilities for small business owners, increasing access to additional markets and suppliers, as well as opportunities to grow their businesses.
The urban infrastructure finance gap
Cities already account for approximately 70-80 percent of the world’s economic growth, and this will only increase as cities continue to grow.
Cities will need partners to help them provide these building blocks for the future. The public sector cannot address these crucial needs alone, and overall official development assistance barely totals three percent of this amount. Cities should begin looking toward innovative financing options and to the private sector.
Public-Private Partnerships (PPP) in transport infrastructure can offer significant efficiency gains compared to public procurement options—in the right circumstances. The gains accrue from allocating to the private sector those risks they are better able to handle than the public sector, such as those associated with construction costs.
Data backs this up: findings in Construction Risk in Infrastructure Project Finance from EDHEC show that for a large number of transport infrastructure PPP projects, (including roads), construction overruns are significantly lower at 3.3 percent on average compared to public procurement projects, with a 26.7 percent overrun average.