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监管科技:监管机构准备好迎接数据革命了吗?

版本:English

在金融科技(FinTech)行业的引领下,技术和数据被认为是金融新一轮颠覆式变革的引擎。而FinTech为其不太出名的姊妹RegTech(监管科技)也打开了大门。

英国金融市场行为监管局(Financial Conduct Authority)最早使用RegTech一词并将其定义为FinTech的一个分支。从定义来看,其“重点是那些能比现有手段更有效地促进监管达标的技术”。换言之,RegTech是能提高监管流程的效率、一致性和简便性的技术。

比如,将授权、市场监测、非现场监管和收集监管反馈等现有程序自动化——目前,很多程序都依赖于纸质文件、装订夹或Excel电子表格。例如,巴西中央银行(Central Bank of Brazil)开发出了用于远程审查的技术解决方案。利用被称为Siscom(监管支持与通信综合系统)的系统,监管机构可远程收集数据和文件,并与金融机构进行在线互动。系统将监管任务标准化,将官僚职能(比如,存档)自动化,使监管机构能在兼顾成本效益的情况下,覆盖小型金融机构,提高监管队伍的生产力。

5.032亿个着手数据保护的理由

Kate McKee's picture

版本: English

近期,全球近5亿雅虎用户受到了一场严重数据泄漏的影响。许多用户认为其服务提供商的数据安全保障充分,可防止隐私失窃,至少其服务提供商可在发生泄漏时通知他们,从而让这些用户能够采取措施,减少伤害。可悲的是,他们的信任所托非人。

当然,雅虎并非唯一一家遭受黑客攻击的大众市场公司。此次泄漏事件仅是大量零售商和金融服务提供商所经历的诸多大规模泄漏事件中的一件,这些大公司中就包括塔吉特和摩根大通集团等全球知名品牌。

网上社交和购物并非毫无风险。数字金融亦是如此。

Man looks at a mobile phone
图片: Tom Perry / 世界银行, CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

Paying teacher salaries with mobile phones

Michael Trucano's picture
no worries, everything here is orderly and under control, all money is being accounted for in a clear and timely manner
no worries, everything here is orderly and under control,
all money is being accounted for in a clear and timely manner

I often find that a sure way to generate rather heated discussions in many quarters is to bring up the topic of teacher salaries. They're too low! or: They're too high! They should be linked to [insert some sort of 'performance indicator']! or: Attempts to link them to [insert name of a performance indicator] are misguided (and perhaps even dangerous)!

I'll leave it to others more informed and expert than I am to weigh in on such (often quite contentious) debates. However one might approach such discussions, and whatever conclusions one might draw from them, there isn't a lot of debate about one issue related to teacher salaries that has been well documented, and widely (and rightly) deplored.

Many teachers around the world suffer as a result of poorly-functioning systems to pay the salaries [pdf] they are due [ppt]. This is especially problematic, and notable, given that teacher salaries have for many decades constituted huge percentages of the overall education budgets in many countries. As a World Bank publication from a few years ago (Teachers for Rural Schools : Experiences in Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, and Uganda) laments, "Teachers in remote schools are [compared with their colleagues in more urban areas] more likely to be the direct victims of administrative failures, which undermine teacher morale and damage the system. One frequently mentioned administrative failure is the delay in paying teachers’ salaries and allowances." An 'administrative failure' of this sort can have many causes. Even where sufficient budget exists to pay teachers, flawed teacher salary systems, poor internal controls, logistical challenges related to transport, and corruption can conspire to ensure that in many places, especially in rural areas in poor countries, teacher salaries are sometimes paid only infrequently, often with great delay. The results of this can be devastating for education systems -- to say nothing of the impact on individual teachers, schools, students and local communities.

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Back when I worked with the World Bank's infoDev program, one of my responsibilities was to serve as a point person on 'mobile money' issues, briefing groups on emerging lessons and experiences from nascent activities to use mobile phones to transfer money from one person to another. I left infoDev in 2008, just as activities in this regard were really starting to heat up (Kenya's M-Pesa program, the best known 'mobile money success story', launched in 2007), but continued to meet semi-regularly with folks -- colleagues from the World Bank and other international donor agencies, government officials, NGOs and foundations, businesspeople, researchers -- who were interesting in exploring how new mobile payment options might be used in inventive ways to help address some longstanding developmental challenges. (Those totally new to the topic may benefit from watching this short video from CGAP, which demonstrates how mobile money activities look in practice.) Most of these conversations, as it happens, included considerations of how money transfers via mobile phones might be used to ensure that teachers got paid, in full and on time. As I prepare for a trip next week to the Mobile World Congress in Barcelona, I realize haven't fielded one substantive information request related to this topic in the past three years.

Up until about 2010, I met quite often with groups who were looking for creative ways to help address the 'paying salaries to teachers in rural areas challenge' and who had seized on the idea of taking advantage of the increasing ubiquity of mobile phones in such areas to help fashion some sort of 'solution'.  In the last three years, however, the volume around these sorts of discussions in many quarters has almost died out. Part of this might be explained by the fact that there are now many 'experts' on mobile money issues, people much more expert and well informed than I am about related issues, and so I simply might be 'out of the loop'. (Back in the 'early days' of work on this topic, I could never shake the nagging feeling that the reason that I was approached by so many groups for related information and advice was at least partially a result of the 'in the valley of the blind, the one-eyed man is king' phenomenon.) That said, given that a regular part of my daily work at the World Bank is to field questions related to the use of new technologies in education in all sorts of ways around the world, and that a lot of my job isn't so much about in providing answers, but about helping people formulate better questions, the fact that this question seems no longer to be a topic of much discussion makes me wonder:

Whatever happened to the idea of paying teacher salaries with mobile phones?

India’s Vision for Technology and Financial Inclusion: Interview with Bindu Ananth of IFMR Trust

Jim Rosenberg's picture

Bindu Ananth is the President of IFMR Trust, which has a mission of ensuring that every individual and every enterprise in India has access to complete financial services. In pursuit of this, IFMR has made four key investments – IFMR Rural Finance (full service financial institutions for remote rural India), IFMR Capital (guarantee company for high-quality MFIs), IFMR Mezzanine (subordinated debt provider for emerging MFIs) and IFMR Ventures (debt access for rural enterprises).  Through these investments as well as other initiatives , IFMR Trust is advocating for an inclusive financial system in India. Recently I interviewed Bindu about how the financial system in India might be configured to deliver complete financial service access.