The impact of bank competition on financial markets and firms is an important topic of concern for policymakers and researchers alike. Interest in this topic intensified during the recent global financial crisis as researchers and policymakers questioned whether high competition was partly to blame.1 Those against bank competition make two main arguments. First, competition may lead to risky lending practices as financial institutions search for higher margins. The increase in subprime lending is an example of such behavior prior to the recent crisis. Second, higher competition may erode banks’ profit margins and leave them with insufficient capital cushions, something that also played a role in the recent crisis. On the other hand, those in favor of competition argue that it can improve access to finance, especially for small and medium enterprises, and that any negative effects on stability are better addressed by proper regulation and supervision of financial institutions.
Over 1.25 million people are killed each year on the road. And 20-50 million others are seriously impacted by road traffic injuries. While most regions have seen a decrease in road-traffic related death rates, Sub-Saharan Africa and Middle East and North Africa still see over 20 deaths per 100,000 people every year.
A new report produced by the World Bank and funded by Bloomberg Philantrophies estimates the social and economic benefits of reducing road traffic injuries in low- and middle-income countries.
A big idea can be rejected. It might be illegal. It might mean political suicide. In the words of Marcelo Giugale, the World Bank’s director of Economic Policy and Poverty Reduction Programs for Africa, challenging conventional wisdom isn’t always easy. But in the realm of big ideas, the risk is part of the reward.
Challenges of gender inequality in water include:
- Women are disproportionately underrepresented in water sector decision making at many levels.
- Women and girls are often charged with domestic water collection, disadvantaging other spheres of life, such as education.
- Men benefit disproportionally from economic opportunities generated by the capital-intensive nature of water development and management.
- Women and girls have specific sanitation needs, both for managing menstruation and for protection against gender-based violence.