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How do Causes of Death Vary Between Men and Women?

Dereje Ketema Wolde's picture


This is part of a series of blogs focused on the Sustainable Development Goals and data from the 2016 Edition of World Development Indicators.

Source: World Development Indicators and World Health Organization (WHO) Global Health Estimates Note: Causes of death by communicable diseases and maternal, prenatal and nutrition conditions are grouped together by WHO.

As Emi Suzuki wrote last week, the causes and patterns of death rich and poor countires vary and they're changing.  But what about the gender dimension? 

Women can expect to live longer than men in almost every country of the world. Globally, women's life expectancy remains about 3 years longer than men's, and you see the data for different countries in the interactive chart below:

Chart: Globally, Over 8 in 10 Children Have Measles Immunizations

Tariq Khokhar's picture

According to the World Health Organization, about 85% of the world's children received a measles vaccine by their first birthday in 2014 - up from 73% in 2000. Between 2000 and 2014, measles vaccination prevented an estimated 17.1 million deaths making it one of the "best buys" in public health.

Are people living longer, healthier lives?

Emi Suzuki's picture


This is part of a series of blogs focused on the Sustainable Development Goals and data from the 2016 Edition of World Development Indicators.

The incidence and patterns of serious diseases in rich and poor countries differ and they’re changing.  In low-income countries more than half the population dies from communicable diseases, or maternal, prenatal, or nutrition conditions. In middle- and high-income countries more than two-thirds die from noncommunicable diseases.  However, as health care and targeted medicine in poorer countries improve, the incidence of diseases such as malaria and HIV are starting to fall, whilst deaths due to heart attacks and strokes are on the increase.

Sustainable Development Goal 3 looks to ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all ages. One of its aims is to reduce deaths and adverse consequences of non-communicable diseases and injuries—for example, by halving the number of global deaths and injuries from road traffic accidents by 2020. Traffic injuries caused 27 deaths per 100,000 people in low-income countries in 2013, three times more than in high-income countries. Rates in middle-income countries are also high.

Chart: Countries Where over 80% of Electricity is Renewable

Tariq Khokhar's picture

A fifth of the world's electricity production in 2012 came from renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, geothermal, and hydropower. The International Energy Agency estimates this could rise to a quarter of the world's production by 2020.

Note: I picked "over 80%" just for emphasis - I was surprised by the countries in Sub-Saharan Africa such as Zambia where hydropower is a big part of the energy generation mix. You can see a map with values for all countries with available data here.

The 2016 edition of World Development Indicators is out: three features you won’t want to miss

Neil Fantom's picture

We’re excited to announce the release of the 2016 edition of World Development Indicators (WDI).

With over 1 million downloads last year, WDI is the most widely used dataset in our Open Data Catalog and it provides high-quality cross-country comparable statistics about development and people’s lives around the globe. You can:

WDI now includes 1,400 indicators for over 200 economies. While we update the WDI database quarterly and make historical versions available, this annual release of a new edition is an opportunity to review the trends we’re seeing in global development and discuss updates we’ve made to our data and methods.

We’ve gone from the MDGs to the SDGs with expanded data and illustrations of trends

The WDI team aims to produce a curated set of indicators relevant to the changing needs of the development community. The new edition includes indicators to help measure the 169 targets of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) - these build on the 8 goals and 18 targets of the Millennium Development Goals we focused on in previous editions, but are far wider in scope and far more ambitious. A complementary Sustainable Development Goals data dashboard provides an interactive presentation of the indicators we have in the WDI database that are related to each goal.

For each of the 17 SDGs the World View section of the publication includes recent trends and baselines against key targets. Data experts in the World Bank’s Data Group and subject specialists in the Bank’s Global Practices and Cross Cutting Solution Areas teamed up to identify new and existing indicators and assess key trends for each goal and for three cross-cutting areas: statistical capacity; fragility, conflict and violence; and financial inclusion.

A series of blogs will look further at data and the SDGs, and review some of the measurement challenges. To give you an idea of how interesting some of the trends are, here are four charts we found striking:

While undernourishment has been halved globally since 1990, over a quarter of the population in low-income countries still can’t meet their dietary energy requirements.

Good records of births and deaths are key to delivering government programs and services, but in Sub-Saharan africa, fewer than half of children’s births were recorded in 2011.

While some regions have increased forest coverage, Latin America and the Caribbean and Sub-Saharan Africa lost 97 and 83 million hectares respectively since 1990.

Since the 1980s there has been a dramatic rise in aquaculture - fish, shellfish, and seaweed farming.  We now farm as much fish as we catch. (The resemblance between this chart and the shape of a fish is pleasing, but coincidental!)

Download the World Development Indicators from the Bank's Open Knowledge Repository

We’re no longer distinguishing between “developing” and “developed” countries

Last November, Tariq Khokhar and Umar Serajuddin  asked the question: “Should we continue to use the term ‘developing world?” The conclusion was that it’s becoming less relevant, and with the focus of the SDGs on goals for the whole world, we should start phasing out the term “developing world” in our data publications and databases.

Exporter Dynamics Database version 2.0: What does it reveal about the trade collapse?

Ana Fernandes's picture

The recent global financial crisis was closely followed by a trade collapse. Global trade plunged by 23% in 2008-2009. Despite a rebound in 2010-2011, trade growth has been almost stagnant ever since and is predicted by the WTO in its April 7 2016 press release to remain sluggish, a grim outlook compared to the expansions in pre-crisis times (Constantinescu et al., 2015).  What were the underlying micro sources of this trade collapse: were exporters’ ability to participate in foreign markets or their pace of growth most hurt? Evidence from high-income countries shows that declines in the intensive margin—average exporter size—explain most of the decline in global trade, compared to the fall in the extensive margin—the number of exporters. But what about developing countries? 

Download and query Exporter Dynamics Database indicators

The recently released Exporter Dynamics Database (EDD) version 2.0 with its indicators on both margins of trade at a micro level for 70 countries (of which 56 developing countries) can help answer this question. The EDD can be downloaded in bulk from the World Bank Microdata catalog and now it is also available for customized queries in the World Bank Databank. The EDD indicators for developing countries show that a decline in the average size of exporters was the key factor behind the decline in total exports resulting from the global financial crisis. 

Chart: In low-income countries, girls continue to lag boys in school completion

Tariq Khokhar's picture

Globally, over 90% of children complete primary school and over 70% complete lower secondary school. However, completion rates are much lower in low-income countries, and large gaps remain between boys and girls.

You can find more data on education at our new beta open data site and also access the data from the chart above.
 

Economic slowdown puts the brakes on middle class growth in Latin America

Oscar Calvo-González's picture

The growth of the middle class has been one of the first casualties of the economic slowdown in the Latin America and the Caribbean region. In 2014, the share of Latin Americans that were middle class was almost the same as in 2013 (35 percent of the population, up from 34.8 percent; see the World Bank’s LAC Equity Lab). This almost negligible increase of the middle class contrasts with the trend that had marked the decade up to 2012. During that golden decade, the middle class grew at a brisk pace and every year over 1 percent of the population moved up to the middle class. It may not sound like much but put it this way: during the ten years before 2012 over ten million Latin Americans joined the ranks of the middle class every year. In 2014, barely a third of that figure –three and a half million– achieved that feat.

Until recently, Latin America was well on its way to becoming a middle class region. Had the trend of the golden decade continued, the middle class would have become the largest group of Latin Americans by next year. Unfortunately, as shown in the chart below, based on current trends it is unclear when such a milestone could be reached. In addition, other social gains have also slowed down. For example, the economic downturn has been accompanied by a lower income growth for the bottom 40 percent of the population—we examine this in the latest Poverty and Inequality brief

Chart: The changing causes of death in low-income countries

Tariq Khokhar's picture

Note: Data from World Health Organization Global Health Estimates and as noted in their methodology (PDF) they use the World Bank's Income Classification as of 2014. 

Worldwide, the leading causes of death are changing, and they vary between rich and poor countries. In low-income countries, deaths from communicable diseases such as malaria and HIV/AIDS have fallen, while deaths from non-communicable diseases such as stroke and diabetes are on the rise.

While explanations for these changing causes vary, my colleague Patricio Marquez recently wrote about the global rise in the number of overweight people and people with diabetes.  Patricio notes that this is not only a problem of the rich - or the rich world;  about 80% of people with diabetes live in low- and middle-income countries.  Shifts in society are behind these changes: urbanization is changing traditional diets and lifestyles; and the aging of the population results in the natural deterioration of multiple organ systems which contributes to the onset of diabetes.  

You can explore the data further in this interactive data visualiztion:

Five forest figures for the International Day of Forests

Tariq Khokhar's picture


This is part of a series of blogs focussed on the Sustainable Development Goals and data from the 2016 Edition of World Development Indicators.


 

Click here to view interactive version of map

A recent study based on satellite data estimates that there are 3 trillion trees on Earth - that’s over 400 trees per person. That also means that there are more trees on Earth than stars in the Milky Way.

Forests are key to climate, water, health and livelihoods, and to mark the International Day of Forests, we’ve taken a look at the upcoming World Development Indicators 2016, and highlighted some trends in how forest cover has changed in the last 25 years.


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