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How to climb the Open Data maturity ladder: lessons from Europe

David Mariano's picture

Editor’s note: This is a guest blog from Jorn Berends and Wendy Carrara on behalf of the European Data Portal. The indicator “Open Data readiness” mentioned in the analysis below is unrelated to the Open Data Readiness Assessment tool developed by the World Bank.

The majority of European countries are improving their Open Data maturity

Open Data is taking off in Europe. Open Data – which refers to publicly available data that is free for all to use – is set to have a monumental impact on societies in the upcoming years, and has a potential market size for the European Union of 75.7 bn EUR by 2020. European countries seem to be on track to reap the potential of Open Data, although a lot of work remains to be done and substantial differences persist between countries. In 2016, with a 28.6% increase compared to 2015, the EU28 and Norway, Switzerland and Liechtenstein – referred to as EU28+ –  completed over 55% of their Open Data journey. This shows that, by 2016, a majority of the EU28+ countries have successfully developed a basic approach to address Open Data. This is just one of the conclusions of the 2016 Open Data Maturity in Europe report, prepared by the European Data Portal. What can this report tell us on the countries that are doing particularly well in this regard, what is it that makes them European champions? Furthermore, what can other countries learn from them?

Spain and France are leading the way in Europe, but substantial differences persist

The measurement is built on two key indicators ‘Open Data Readiness’ and ‘Portal Maturity’, thereby covering the level of development of national activities promoting Open Data as well as the level of development of the country’s national data portal. Based on these indicators, the European countries are clustered into four different levels of Open Data maturity: Beginners, Followers, Fast Trackers and Trend Setters.

 

Chart: 2.4 Billion People Live Without Access to Toilets

Tariq Khokhar's picture

The UN estimates that 2.4 billion people still lack access to improved sanitation facilities, nearly 1 billion of which practice open defecation. Good sanitation is a foundation for development - conditions such as diarrhea are associated with poor sanitation, and left untreated, can lead to malnutrition and stunting in children. Read more about World Toilet Day

Chart: 13% of Global Emissions Covered by a Carbon Price

Tariq Khokhar's picture

Note: Only ETS (Emissions Trading Systems) or carbon tax are considered on this graph. Emissions are given as a share of global GHG emissions in 2012. Annual changes in global, regional, national, and subnational GHG emissions are not shown in the graph.

In the last 10 years, there's been a threefold increase in the share of greenhouse gas emissions covered by a carbon price. In 2016, about 40 national jurisdictions and more than 20 cities, states, and regions, including seven out of the world’s 10 largest economies, are putting a price on carbon. Seven Gigatons of carbon dioxide or about 13 percent of global emissions are covered by a carbon price. Read more in State and Trends of Carbon Pricing 2016.

Chart: Tourism Reaches all-time high in Peru

Erin Scronce's picture

Peru welcomed 3.2 million tourists in 20 14, the highest number to date. In some regions of the country, like Cusco, tourism is a potential economic lifeline for local people, who can profit from a variety of businesses serving tourists. In 2012, the World Bank Group began working with The Government of Peru to streamline the processes around opening tourism-related businesses because excessive regulations and red tape were holding up investments in new businesses for years. Ultimately, the project shaved 3 years off the business registration process and eliminated 150 unnecessary regulations. With the streamlined regulations in place, investments in hotels in Peru are on the rise. Between 2015 and 2018, Peru is expecting US$1.2 billion in investments in new hotels, an increase from US$550 million during the period 2010-2014.

 Find out more here.

Chart: 25 Years of Growth in The World's Largest Cities

Tariq Khokhar's picture

By 2030, two thirds of the world will live in cities. The world's 12 largest city areas are each home to over 15 million people, and over the last 25 years, cities such as Delhi, Shanghai and Beijing have tripled in size.

Open about what we do and open about what we’ve done

Stefan Koeberle's picture
Selected World Bank Projects in Ethiopia


Do you know that the World Bank makes openly available the details of projects, financials, and now results?

Six years ago we launched our open data initiative, and we remain committed to being open about what we know and open about what we do. Readers are probably familiar with our development data and statistics, but there’s a wealth of data available on our project and operations that’s also available in the IATI open data format.

Chart: 137 Economies Implemented 283 Business Reforms Last Year

Tariq Khokhar's picture

Doing Business 2017 finds that 137 economies worldwide implemented 283 business regulatory reforms last year. This represents an increase of more than 20% over the previous year. Areas of reform include starting a business, paying taxes, getting credit and registering property. Notably, 54 IDA countries implemented 113 reforms.

Data needs to be local, equitable and collaborative

Haishan Fu's picture
Opening Session at IODC 2016

Earlier this month, over 1,500 people gathered in Madrid for the International Open Data Conference 2016. The World Bank is proud to be a co-organizer of this series of conferences which brings together the global community to shape the future of open data. I was asked to share our thinking on what’s on the horizon for open data and I’ve highlighted a few key ideas below.

Before I carry on though - a quick personal note. Being in Madrid reminded me of my first trip to the city 18 years ago, a few days before I took a new job as the chief of statistics at the UNDP's Human Development Report. Little did I know, while enjoying tapas before flying to New York, that a big part of my job was to become good friends with other international organizations, including the World Bank, so we could get, for free, in Excel sheets, the data they compile and disseminate, often through publication sales.

How things have changed since then with the Open Data Initiative! Now open data accounts for almost two thirds of all web traffic to the Bank and is freely available for anybody to access and use. I’d like to acknowledge my predecessor, Shaida Badiee, for having led the team to make open data happen at the World Bank six years ago, and for continuing to be a force for open data as head of Open Data Watch.

Chart: Where is Gender Discrimination in Business Regulated?

Tariq Khokhar's picture

60% of economies do not have laws mandating gender nondiscrimination in hiring and equal remuneration. Such laws are more common in OECD high-income economies, followed by economies in Europe and Central Asia. Gender equality can make institutions more representative, improve social cohesion and increase productivity.

Quantifying uncertainties in global growth forecasts

Franziska Ohnsorge's picture
Figure 1. Risks to Global Growth
Upside risks to global growth have increased since January while downside risks for current-year growth have reached post-crisis highs.

A 90% confidence interval implies a 90% chance of growth falling within the given range
Source: World Bank Global Economic Prospects report June 2016.
Note: “90 percent JAN16” is the 90 percent confidence interval of a fanchart based on data available for the January 2016 Global Economic Prospects report

Assessing economic forecast uncertainty and the balance of risks to the growth outlook is critical to effective policymaking. Lower-probability but high-impact events can lead to significant deviations from baseline projections, and this  should be factored into policy design. The World Bank’s most recent Global Economic Prospects unveiled a tool to quantify uncertainty around global growth forecasts and presented it in the form of a fan charts (Figure 1)

The approach adopted in the Global Economic Prospects report consists of two steps.

First, a number of measurable risk indicators that are typical sources of forecast errors for global growth forecasts are selected. Three were chosen: equity price futures, oil price futures and bond term spreads (the difference between short and long term interest rates). For instance, greater volatility in oil price futures could be associated with rising uncertainty around global growth forecasts, while a downward trend in equity price futures could signal rising downside risks to growth.

Second, the probability distributions of forecasts for these three indicators are then mapped to the distribution of global growth forecasts. Both the degree of uncertainty and the balance of risks to the forecast are approximated by weighted averages of the standard deviation and skewness implied by the distributions of expectations for the risk indicators. The weights are estimated in a vector autoregression model (Ohnsorge, Some, and Stocker 2016). To account for potential asymmetry in the distributions of risks, a two-piece normal distribution is assumed, in line with other studies.


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