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Exporter Dynamics Database version 2.0: What does it reveal about the trade collapse?

Ana Fernandes's picture

The recent global financial crisis was closely followed by a trade collapse. Global trade plunged by 23% in 2008-2009. Despite a rebound in 2010-2011, trade growth has been almost stagnant ever since and is predicted by the WTO in its April 7 2016 press release to remain sluggish, a grim outlook compared to the expansions in pre-crisis times (Constantinescu et al., 2015).  What were the underlying micro sources of this trade collapse: were exporters’ ability to participate in foreign markets or their pace of growth most hurt? Evidence from high-income countries shows that declines in the intensive margin—average exporter size—explain most of the decline in global trade, compared to the fall in the extensive margin—the number of exporters. But what about developing countries? 

Download and query Exporter Dynamics Database indicators

The recently released Exporter Dynamics Database (EDD) version 2.0 with its indicators on both margins of trade at a micro level for 70 countries (of which 56 developing countries) can help answer this question. The EDD can be downloaded in bulk from the World Bank Microdata catalog and now it is also available for customized queries in the World Bank Databank. The EDD indicators for developing countries show that a decline in the average size of exporters was the key factor behind the decline in total exports resulting from the global financial crisis. 

Chart: In low-income countries, girls continue to lag boys in school completion

Tariq Khokhar's picture

Globally, over 90% of children complete primary school and over 70% complete lower secondary school. However, completion rates are much lower in low-income countries, and large gaps remain between boys and girls.

You can find more data on education at our new beta open data site and also access the data from the chart above.
 

Economic slowdown puts the brakes on middle class growth in Latin America

Oscar Calvo-González's picture

The growth of the middle class has been one of the first casualties of the economic slowdown in the Latin America and the Caribbean region. In 2014, the share of Latin Americans that were middle class was almost the same as in 2013 (35 percent of the population, up from 34.8 percent; see the World Bank’s LAC Equity Lab). This almost negligible increase of the middle class contrasts with the trend that had marked the decade up to 2012. During that golden decade, the middle class grew at a brisk pace and every year over 1 percent of the population moved up to the middle class. It may not sound like much but put it this way: during the ten years before 2012 over ten million Latin Americans joined the ranks of the middle class every year. In 2014, barely a third of that figure –three and a half million– achieved that feat.

Until recently, Latin America was well on its way to becoming a middle class region. Had the trend of the golden decade continued, the middle class would have become the largest group of Latin Americans by next year. Unfortunately, as shown in the chart below, based on current trends it is unclear when such a milestone could be reached. In addition, other social gains have also slowed down. For example, the economic downturn has been accompanied by a lower income growth for the bottom 40 percent of the population—we examine this in the latest Poverty and Inequality brief

Chart: The changing causes of death in low-income countries

Tariq Khokhar's picture

Note: Data from World Health Organization Global Health Estimates and as noted in their methodology (PDF) they use the World Bank's Income Classification as of 2014. 

Worldwide, the leading causes of death are changing, and they vary between rich and poor countries. In low-income countries, deaths from communicable diseases such as malaria and HIV/AIDS have fallen, while deaths from non-communicable diseases such as stroke and diabetes are on the rise.

While explanations for these changing causes vary, my colleague Patricio Marquez recently wrote about the global rise in the number of overweight people and people with diabetes.  Patricio notes that this is not only a problem of the rich - or the rich world;  about 80% of people with diabetes live in low- and middle-income countries.  Shifts in society are behind these changes: urbanization is changing traditional diets and lifestyles; and the aging of the population results in the natural deterioration of multiple organ systems which contributes to the onset of diabetes.  

You can explore the data further in this interactive data visualiztion:

Five forest figures for the International Day of Forests

Tariq Khokhar's picture


This is part of a series of blogs focussed on the Sustainable Development Goals and data from the 2016 Edition of World Development Indicators.


 

Click here to view interactive version of map

A recent study based on satellite data estimates that there are 3 trillion trees on Earth - that’s over 400 trees per person. That also means that there are more trees on Earth than stars in the Milky Way.

Forests are key to climate, water, health and livelihoods, and to mark the International Day of Forests, we’ve taken a look at the upcoming World Development Indicators 2016, and highlighted some trends in how forest cover has changed in the last 25 years.

Chart: How Long Does It Take to Register Property?

Tariq Khokhar's picture

Well-designed land administration systems provide reliable information on the ownership of property, making it possible for the property market to exist. Data from Doing Business show that economies with simpler, faster, and less costly processes for property transfers also have on average the highest-quality land administration systems.

What do you think of the all-new data.worldbank.org?

Tim Herzog's picture

Check out the new World Bank Data site at http://beta.data.worldbank.org  - we'd love your feedback.


The new beta.data.worldbank.org

The Bank has been providing free, open access to its development data since the launch of the Open Data Initiative in 2010. Initially, we focused on the popular World Development Indicators data set, but we’ve added lots of datasets since then. But, apart from some changes to make some of the new datasets accessible, the website itself has stayed pretty much the same. That is, until this week!

Chart: Women More Often Work Unpaid in Family Firms

Tariq Khokhar's picture

Globally 55% of women participate in the labor force vs. 82% of men. In many countries, women are also more likely than men to be working without pay in family-owned business such as shops and farms. Read more in the World Bank's Gender Data Portal.

What exactly does “fewer women participate in the labor force” mean?

Masako Hiraga's picture

This year’s Gates Annual Letter focussed on energy and time. Bill Gates argued that cheap, clean sources of energy are fundamental to the future of human development, and Melinda Gates shone a light on how women spend their time, and how it’s spent and compensated differently than men’s. The letter is an excellent example of communicating complex issues clearly and in an engaging manner and we encourage everyone to read it.

While the topic is on people’s minds, we wanted to take the opportunity to clarify one of the charts they included based on “Labor force participation rates” data from our Gender Statistics Database.  
 
What the data show is that worldwide, in 2014, 55% of women participated in the labor force vs 82% of men. In every geographic region, the share of women in the labor force is lower. As the Gates letter notes, this can be attributed to cultural norms - responsibilities for cooking, cleaning and childcare disproportionately fall on women and keep them out of the labor force.
 

The labor force participation rate includes the unemployed and people working without pay

You can think of a “labor force” as the total pool of working-age people able to work in an economy. The labour force participation rate measures the proportion of a country’s working-age population that’s either working or looking for work.  What’s interesting about this statistic is that it includes unemployed people, and people who are working in both paid and unpaid jobs.

Bribery and limited access to banking are challenges for Afghan private firms

Arvind Jain's picture

The World Bank Group’s Enterprise Surveys benchmark the business environment based on actual experiences of firms. In a new blog series we kicked off last week, we’re sharing these findings from recently analyzed surveys conducted through extensive face-to-face interviews with managers and owners of firms in several countries.
 
In this post we focus on Afghanistan. We’ve conducted a survey with 410 firms across five regions and four business sectors—manufacturing, construction, retail, and services.

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) has noted that considerable political and security uncertainties have posed challenges for Afghanistan. Furthermore, the financial sector has been vulnerable with eight out of 15 banks classified as weak in late 2014. Within this context, the Afghanistan Enterprise Surveys (ES) shed light on several interesting findings:

Corruption is a challenge

According to the Afghanistan Enterprise Survey, firms face almost a 50 percent chance of having to pay a bribe if they applied for an electricity connection, tried to obtain permits, or met with government officials for tax purposes (“Bribery incidence”).  This is more than double of what private firms in landlocked developing countries experience on average.
 


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