Information and Communication Technologies
New developments and curiosities from a changing global media landscape: People, Spaces, Deliberation brings trends and events to your attention that illustrate that tomorrow's media environment will look very different from today's, and will have little resemblance to yesterday's.
In recent years, as the number of mobile-cellular subscriptions surpassed 7.1 billion and mobile network population coverage approached close to 95%, growth in mobile subscriptions has greatly exceeded the growth in fixed connections, especially in developing countries. For many low-income groups, mobile devices are their only window to internet access.
The tremendous growth has not only contributed to greater access rates, but also to a fall in prices of mobile-cellular services around the world as providers seek to be competitive. Over the past year, the decrease in mobile-broadband prices worldwide made it, on average, 20 – 30% more affordable. In least developed countries (LDCs), the mobile-cellular price basket continued to fall to 14% of GNI per capita by the end of 2014, compared with 29% in 2010.
Nevertheless, as the following graph from Measuring the Information Society Report 2015 by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) illustrates, LDCs have a long way to go in order to achieve affordable mobile-broadband packages. The graph shows, the average prices for pre- and post-paid broadband connections on computers and mobile devices, as measured against monthly GNI per capita, in 2013 and 2014.
Among the options, prepaid mobile-broadband is the most affordable. In this context, it will be important for broadband providers to offer more new services and packages for low-income groups, such as allowing users to buy data in small volumes.
It was such a pleasant sun filled morning when we descended upon Iganga town in Uganda in December. The farmers began trickling in one by one after 9 am, once they had tended to their crops and animals.
Digital technology dominates our everyday lives, and with each passing day, even more so. How can the global community benefit from the new digital era?
The World Bank’s World Development Report 2016 (WDR 2016) provides a useful framework and guidance for harnessing the potential of the internet for development. “To get the most out of the digital revolution, countries also need to work on regulations, skills and institutions—by strengthening regulations that ensure competition among businesses, by adapting workers’ skills to the demands of the new economy, and by ensuring that institutions are accountable,” says the Report. This may sound familiar, but it is not. Let me explain.
- Male, from Madurai, India, Age between 16-25, intermediate diploma holder
“ I am a full time independent freelancer and my 100% earning comes from online. So definitely internet is one of the most important things in my life”
- Male, from Dhaka, Bangladesh, Age between 26-45, completed Bachelor and above
These quotes are just a glimpse at the power of digital technologies, coming from many amazing stories as people answered the following question online: “how has your life changed (personally or professionally) after you began to use the internet?” A key message from the responses is “Internet provides an opportunity to learn, earn, make friends, connect with family and friends, apply for jobs easily, and shop online.” As discussed in the upcoming World Development Report 2016 “Digital Dividends,” the internet, and other digital technologies, are changing the way people work, entertain, interact, and find jobs across high, middle and low-income countries.
When the Russian Empress Catherine the Great visited Crimea in the late 18th century, the nobleman Grigory Potemkin is meant to have had fake village facades erected along her travel route, as well as to have spruced up some of the existing visible buildings (and people), so that she would be fooled into thinking that things were better than they really were. While historians have expressed considerable doubt about whether this actually occurred (indeed, many place it in the category of persistent "cultural myth"), the concept of a Potemkin Village, where things are tarted up so that occasional visitors get a false sense of reality, is not too difficult to understand.
Over the years I have visited hundreds and hundreds of schools in scores of countries to get a sense how they are using (and not using) technology. Whether in rural Eritrea or highly developed, urban Singapore, as an outsider I am always conscious of the fact that there is an element of 'show' to what I am seeing -- or at least that there might be. The act of observing can often change what is being observed (social scientists refer to this as the Hawthorne effect). As an employee of the World Bank, I know that government officials who arrange and accompany me on school visits often want to showcase what 'works', and what is 'best practice'. This is especially the case where World Bank (or other external) funding has been involved, as people are eager to show that related monies have been well spent.
This is not always the case, of course. I was once lucky enough to visit a school in Latin America for children with special educational needs in a country that was buying *lots* of technology for use by teachers and students. We arranged to meet the relevant government officials at the school early in the morning so that they could act as our guides. However, it turned out that there were actually two schools for special needs students located on the same street in different parts of the city -- and we had gone to the wrong one. After waiting for a while in the office of the headmistress (who was clearly surprised that we were there), it was decided that we should just begin the tour and start talking to people. A few hours later, after the national educational officials had finally figured out where we were, we were picked up and driven to the 'correct' school. It will probably come as little surprise that our experiences in both places were quite different. Chats with teachers, administrators and parents at the first school contrasted rather markedly with the quite sunny picture presented to us at the second 'showcase' school. This is not to say that we couldn't learn anything from the showcase school, however, just that we learned different things -- and perhaps had to work a bit harder to do so.
“Within two days, I was able to hire the right people from the right locations” -- Employer using Souktel
In West Bank and Gaza, women are 19 percent of the total labor force (figure 1). But among the users of Souktel, an online job matching platform, more than one third of the users are women. This is one of the many promises of digital technologies for development.
Figure 1: Share of the labor force, nationally and in Souktel
Source: Souktel and Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics, prepared for World Development Report 2016.
People, Spaces, Deliberation bloggers present exceptional campaign art from all over the world. These examples are meant to inspire.Most of us are familiar with the “hot seat”, a game in which an individual is asked a series of questions in rapid-fire with limited time to respond. The game tries to get the person being quizzed to answer without thinking too much so his/her responses are more candid. But what if the answers are a matter of life or death? What if the choices we make decide our future?
This is the message of Transport for London: life is made up of a series of small decisions, and one bad decision one on the road can be fatal.
According to the World Health Organization, around 1.25 million people worldwide die each year as a result of road traffic crashes. Distracted driving is a common cause for traffic accidents, with mobile phones becoming increasingly more problematic. Indeed, drivers using a mobile phone are approximately 4 times more likely to be involved in a crash than drivers who are not. Texting or calling while driving leaders to slower reaction times— notably in braking reaction— impaired ability to keep in the correct lane, and shorter following distances.
Rosie Parkyn explores the opportunities and challenges online media presents in addressing the gender equality gap.
‘If you see it, you can be it’ could have been the unofficial slogan of the International Development Cooperation meeting on Gender and Media, where I was invited to talk about the opportunities created by the internet and online media to counter gender stereotyping, or the assignment of particular characteristics and roles according to sex. This is a theme touched on by our Policy Briefing, Making Waves: Media’s Potential for Girls in the Global South.
Much has been said about the need to achieve better visibility for girls and women in the media if gender equality is to be realised. This year’s Global Media Monitoring Project reported that women make up only 24% of people heard, read about or seen in news reporting. That coverage is often characterised by gender bias and extensive stereotyping.
So could the onward expansion of digital spaces fast track the process of ensuring girls and women are seen in a diversity of roles? The short answer is yes of course, it has transformative potential. But there are significant caveats.
New developments and curiosities from a changing global media landscape: People, Spaces, Deliberation brings trends and events to your attention that illustrate that tomorrow's media environment will look very different from today's, and will have little resemblance to yesterday's.Despite a widely documented global decline in Internet freedom, people around the world still embrace fundamental democratic values, including the right to free speech.
A new Pew Research Center survey finds that majorities in 32 of 38 countries polled state it is important to live in a country where people can use the internet without government censorship. Pew interviewed 40,786 people between April 5 - May 21, 2015 and found that even though internet freedom ranks last among the six broad democratic rights included on the survey, a median of 50% believe it is very important to live in a country with an uncensored internet. The strongest support for internet freedom is found in Argentina, the U.S., Germany and Spain, where about 70% of the populations consider it very important, and it the lowest support can be found in Burkina Faso and Indonesia, where only 21% in both countries think it’s important.
There is a strong correlation between the percentage of people in a country who use the internet and the percentage who say a free internet is very important, demonstrating that as people gain access to the Web, the salience and desire for freedom in cyberspace also grows.