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Labor and Social Protection

The impact of Libyan middle-class refugees in Tunisia

Omer Karasapan's picture
Libyan Flag

The Arab world is in the midst of one of the largest human displacements in modern history, with 14-15 million refugees and internally displaced people (IDPs). This number includes over 10 million Syrians that are now refugees abroad or IDPs, nearly 2 million Iraqi IDPs, and hundreds of thousands of Iraqi refugees most of whom fled to Syria. There are 2 million Libyans abroad, mostly in Tunisia, and 400,000 IDPs within the country. The region is also prone to sudden population movements such as the hurried return of hundreds of thousands of Egyptians from Libya, first when fighting intensified over the summer and then following the barbaric beheading of 21 Egyptians. 

This blog originally appeared in Future Development.

Public spaces - not a “nice to have” but a basic need for cities

Sangmoo Kim's picture
The benefits of public spaces in the poorest parts of the world
Source: World Bank Staff

We often think of amenities such as quality streets, squares, waterfronts, public buildings, and other well-designed public spaces as luxury amenities for affluent communities. However, research increasingly suggests that they are even more critical to well-being of the poor and the development of their communities, who often do not have spacious homes and gardens to retreat to.

Living in a confined room without adequate space and sunlight increases the likelihood of health problems, restricts interaction and other productive activities. Public spaces are the living rooms, gardens and corridors of urban areas. They serve to extend small living spaces and providing areas for social interaction and economic activities, which improves the development and desirability of a community. This increases productivity and attracts human capital while providing an improved quality of life as highlighted in the upcoming Urbanization in South Asia report.

Despite their importance, public spaces are often poorly integrated or neglected in planning and urban development. However, more and more research suggests that investing in them can create prosperous, livable, and equitable cities in developing countries. UN-Habitat has studied the contribution of streets as public spaces on the prosperity of cities, which finds a correlation between expansive street grids and prosperity as well as developing a public space toolkit.

Inspirational stories from connect:ID – the journey to digital IDs for all

Mariana Dahan's picture
Today marks the end of the connect:ID conference, one of the most influential events in the United States, powered through an alliance with the world’s leading identity industry association.
courtesy of connect:ID

I was honored to be invited to speak on the role of identification in the post-2015 development agenda and the World Bank Group's Identification for Development (ID4D) initiative. There was great deal of excitement in the audience hearing about this global agenda.

The questions raised by the attendants touched upon ways of helping the least-developed, conflict-affected countries in the world, where the rates of birth registration and identification are amongst the lowest in the world (e.g. Liberia), to leapfrog to digital ID systems. Would the World Bank Group support such countries build their identification systems basically from scratch?

In this regard, it was interesting to hear the perspectives brought by a fellow panelist at the conference – Tariq Malik, the former chairman and the architect behind the National Database and Registration Authority (NADRA) of Pakistan. Starting almost from scratch, NADRA has massively enrolled the traditionally underregistered communities, including tribal groups, transgender populations and women, becoming a central player in a number of program areas. Under Tariq Malik’s leadership, NADRA has pioneered applications of biometric technology, successfully administering smart card programs for disaster relief programs and financial inclusion schemes for the underserved.

How significant could Africa’s demographic dividend be for growth and poverty reduction?

S. Amer Ahmed's picture
Total dependency ratio, 1950-2030
Total dependency ratio, 1950-2030 *

Africa’s population grew at an average annual rate of 2.6 percent between 1950 and 2014, much faster than the global average of 1.7 percent as estimated from UN population projection data. During this time, the region experienced a demographic transition, moving from a period of high mortality and fertility rates to one of lower mortality, yet still high fertility rates. Other regions, most notably East Asia, took advantage of their transitions to accelerate growth, and reap a so-called ‘demographic dividend’. Africa is now being presented a similar opportunity.

A perfect match: job fair bridges employers with employees in Bangladesh

Ahamad Tanvirul Alam Chowdhury's picture
Collaboration between industries and institutes increase job placement
Out of the 2,000 applicants at the job fair, 1,220 received offers.

After completing a course on becoming a beautician from the Ahsania Mission Training Center, Sonia Akter wondered how she would use her newfound skills to find employment. Luckily, she attended a job fair organized by STEP and quickly started a new career. “At the job-fair, I got an offer to join as a beautician in one of the beauty parlors. I accepted the offer and currently earning BDT 6,000 a month. “

Sonia is not alone. Out of the 2,000 job seekers who submitted their CVs, employers committed to hire an astounding 1,220 employees. Nazma Akter joined at Maroof Tailors & Cloth Store as a tailor, Md. Junayed Islam joined Voice Mail Mobile as a cell phone service technician, Pulok Roy joined Sigma Digital Electronics as an electrician, with each of them are earning currently around BDT 7,000 per month!

Career development is not just about what someone knows. It is also about how they sell their knowledge and skills to the job market and opportunities to engage with potential employers. Realizing the changing job market and help graduates seek competitive jobs matching their skills and interest – Skills and Training Enhancement Project (STEP) is organizing job fairs to boost the Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) in Bangladesh.

A sizeable gap still exists between the employers’ requirement and the curriculum of the vocational training institutions in Bangladesh.The STEP project aims to provide linkages between the job market demand and student’s skill set. Many students who completed short-training courses or job seeking graduates benefited by communicating directly with the employers at the fair. Through job fairs, STEP has promoted the relationship between the job seekers and potential employers and helped them to understand the market demand and supply of the required knowledge and skills.

Can teachers unions help improve the quality of education in the Arab world?

Kamel Braham's picture

In many countries in the Middle East and North Africa, and in fact around the world, teachers—who play a pivotal role in any effort to improve education quality—have not been officially represented in the design of key government programs aimed at education reform.