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Labor and Social Protection

A knowledge economy needs preprimary soft skills development

Ali Mehdi's picture
Indian policymakers are concerned with the employability of their working-age populations. Technical and vocational education and training (TVET) might enhance the employability prospects of the present and near-term labor force. However, if we wish to become a knowledge economy, with highly skilled and dynamic rather than an abundant, cheap labor force, we should revamp our inefficient and inequitable early health and education systems.

Young Women and Work: International Women's Day

Nicole Goldin's picture
A young women at work in Sri Lanka. Women are more likely to work in vulnerable employment, with as many as 85% percent of young women working in vulnerable employment across Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia and the Middle East and North Africa. Photo: Lakshman Nadaraja / World Bank

A virtuous circle: Integrating waste pickers into solid waste management

Martha Chen's picture
Waste – its generation, collection, and disposal – is a major global challenge of the 21st century. Recycling waste drives environmental sustainability by reducing greenhouse gas emissions and stimulates the economy by supplying raw materials and packaging materials.
Waste pickers are the principal actors in reclaiming waste for the recycling industry. Across the world, large numbers of people from low-income and disadvantaged communities make a living collecting and sorting waste, and then selling reclaimed waste through intermediaries to the recycling industry. Where others see trash or garbage, the waste pickers see paper, cardboard, glass, and metal. They are skilled at sorting and bundling different types of waste by color, weight, and end use to sell to the recycling industry. Yet waste pickers are rarely recognized for the important role they play in creating value from the waste generated by others and in contributing to the reduction of carbon emissions.
Fortunately, around the world, waste pickers have been organizing and cities have begun to promote the virtuous circle that comes with integrating waste pickers, the world’s recyclers, into solid waste management.
Brazil was the first country to integrate waste pickers, through their cooperatives, into municipal solid waste management systems and the first to adopt a National Waste Policy, recognizing the contributions of waste pickers and providing a legal framework to enable cooperatives of waste pickers to contract as service providers. The national movement of waste pickers in Brazil was awarded a contract to clean the stadiums during the World Cup.

Economic growth not enough for jobs in Ghana

William Baah-Boateng's picture
Ghana’s economy has grown consistently over the past three decades, however, inadequate job creation, the depth of poverty, and widening income inequality, remain major challenges. The inability of Ghana’s growth to deal with these challenges is an indication of the urgent need to rethink of Ghana’s growth strategy.

How to encourage Moldovans to contribute to their pensions?

Yuliya Smolyar's picture
My last post discussed the challenges and reforms of Moldova’s pension system, but I would like to focus now on the incentives for contributing into a pension system. This issue is especially important for a country like Moldova, where old-age pensions are directly related to the number of contribution years and the level of individual earnings.

Such pension schemes typically envisage some level of redistribution to address poverty and equity concerns. However, excessive redistribution decreases the incentive to contribute to the pension system.

An effectively functioning incentives structure is critical to encouraging workers to contribute more in return for an adequate pension at retirement. Why? Because if the right incentives are not in place, people will avoid contributing into a system that doesn’t offer more than the minimum pension – regardless of the level of contribution.

So, in terms of incentives structure, what particular challenges does Moldova face?

Live longer, work longer?

Harun Onder's picture

Imagine yourself on a comfy seat like the ones they give to ministers. But do not get too cozy as you are about to make a difficult decision. Population is aging in your country, and there simply is not enough resources to finance the pension benefits of the retirees. What should you do?

The conventional wisdom suggests that you should increase the retirement age. The argument goes as follows. People live six years longer in retirement now than half a century ago. Therefore, using some of those additional years for work is not completely unfair. By increasing the retirement age, you could increase the number of contributors while decreasing that of beneficiaries at the same time. This should provide an effective remedy for the imbalances in pension system accounts.

How to get more women working in India

Bringing women’s labour force participation up to that of men is essential for growth and development. Yet, unequal participation by males and females - and disparity in their wages -plagues both the formal and informal sectors in India. In particular, the female workforce participation in the organized manufacturing sector presents a dismal picture. Here are four steps that can redress the balance.

Jobs and health in South Africa

Chijioke O. Nwosu's picture
Despite being one of the richest countries in Africa, South Africa is characterized by a low labor force participation (LFP) and very high unemployment rates. Excluding the unemployed who are not looking for jobs from the pool of participants, the LFP rate declined from 59.4% in 2001 to 57.2% in 2005, and 54.3% in the final quarter of 2011. Though there has been a slight increase recently, it still remains below most sub-Saharan African countries. Unemployment remains stubbornly high at around 25%. Youth unemployment is even more chronic: the unemployment rate among youth aged 15-24 years exceeds 50%. These low participation and very high unemployment rates have far-reaching implications for economic growth and the sustainability of South Africa’s extensive tax-funded social welfare system.

Rural Nepal women empowered to maintain roads

Farhad Ahmed's picture
Bishnu Ghale, an RMG member from Khanigaon, works on the Nuwakot – Malabhanjyang road.

When the earthquake hit on the Saturday of 25th April last year, 35-year-old Bishnu Ghale was working in the fields near her house in Khanigaon VDC of Nuwakot district. The quake destroyed her house, but she was thankful her husband and three children were alive. She was thankful for a steady job, which meant she could quickly muster up the supplies to build a shelter and provide food for her family.

A month before the earthquake, Bishnu started working as a Road Maintenance Group worker, one of a group of 12 men and women who manage a 24 km stretch of rural road from Nuwakot to Malabhanjyang. She looked after the routine maintenance of the road, cleaned the drains, filled pits, cleared minor blockades and planted trees. Working 6 days a week, this earned her up to 11,000 Rupees a month, enough to keep her family going through the difficult months ahead.