Richard Cincotta (not verified)

August 22, 2021

Question: Do foreign aid and defense assistance inputs into the economy count in the computation of GNI per capita? How about remittances? Jordan and Guatemala, both in the upper-middle income class in 2020-2021 (and apparently still there in 2021-22) stand out in that regard. From a demographic standpoint (I'm a demographer), it has been unusual for countries with a youthful population (median age less than 26 years, like Jordan and Guatemala) to reach the upper-middle income category and remain there unless they are among the least populous (less than 5 million residents, including small-island states and port city-states) or have a significant amount of oil and/or mineral resources (like Iraq).