In the face of significant social and cultural barriers, it is tempting to be cynical about a role for education in promoting women managers in developing economies. Consider the number of factors that could come in the way: nationally, cultural and social attitudes may discourage the career advancement of women, and at the firm-level, male-dominated informal networks and cultures can act as barriers. Furthermore, even if all these obstacles were somehow removed, the lack of good quality education itself, and skills mismatches can pose problems.
But, in spite of all this, education remains a crucial founding block for career success. After all, one needs an education in the first place to get to a point where these other factors can undercut the likelihood of career progression. Therefore, without access to education, one may stumble even before the climb up the career ladder begins.
One of the primary goals of the Enterprise Surveys (ES) is to provide high quality data about the business environment based on the experiences of firms. Given how little is known about the private sector in developing economies, this provides much needed information.
The recently released Turkey Enterprise Survey consists of 1344 firms across seven regions and nine business sectors. Firms interviewed for the ES are formal private firms operating in non-agricultural, non-extractive private sector with five or more employees. In this post we will focus on a few highlights for the standard ES firms.
The goal of the Enterprise Surveys (ES) is to portray the quality of the business environment in the economy by asking a set of questions that capture both the experiences and perceptions of firms. Little is known about what businesses experience in emerging and developing economies and the Enterprise Surveys intend to some extent alleviate this knowledge gap. Below we provide highlights of the recently released data for the Democratic Republic of Congo.
One of the primary goals of the Enterprise Surveys is to provide high quality data about the business environment based on establishments’ actual day-to-day experiences. This provides much needed information given how little is known about what businesses experience in developing economies. To raise awareness of the recently released Nepal 2013 Enterprise Survey, we provide a few highlights below.
The Nepal 2013 Enterprise Survey consists of face-to-face interviews with 482 firms across the Central, Western, and Eastern regions in Nepal. Fieldwork was conducted between February and June 2013, with survey questions referencing the 2013 fiscal year. This post will focus on a couple of highlights. For the full survey highlights please see the Nepal 2013 Country Highlights document.
One of the primary goals of the Enterprise Surveys is to provide high quality data about the business environment based on establishments’ actual day-to-day experiences. This provides much needed information given how little is known about what businesses experience in developing economies. To raise awareness of the recently released Bangladesh 2013 Enterprise Survey, we provide a few highlights of the surveys below.
Looking at the literature on informality, one thing that stands out is the small size of the informal firms. In fact, firm-size is one of the criteria used by ILO and individual researchers to draw the line between formal and informal firms. Many informal firms, however defined, are operated by the owner herself or himself and without any other employees, with few having more than five employees.
Information on the situation prior to the outbreak of the crisis is critical for understanding the current situation in Ukraine. As far as economics is concerned, macro-economic data--such as income per capita and unemployment rates-- is definitely important but it does not necessarily capture various dimensions of the business climate and the actual experiences of private agents in dealing with the government. Other factors play a big role, for example, how often do firms pay bribes to obtain licenses and permits in Ukraine? Have these unofficial payments increased over time? In order to answer these questions, we must zero in on what actual firms really experience.
- Enterprise Surveys
The rewards of innovation for developing nations do not require much convincing. Poverty alleviation, faster economic growth, greater job creation, and higher worker remuneration are just some of the potential benefits. The idea of innovation as a key driver of development can be traced back to the seminal works of economists such as Joseph Schumpeter. Thus, it is no surprise that on July 30 and 31, 2013 a group of innovation leaders from 18 countries gathered in Santiago, Chile for the first pan Latin American Innovation Summit. The event was kicked off by Sebastian Piñera, then President of Chile, who had announced a national innovation budget of $1 billion. What about the private sector? An important driver of innovation is Research and Development (R & D) spending by businesses. Evidence shows that firms that invest in R&D and other innovation-related activities have higher productivity and are more capable of making technological advances than firms that do not. So, where do Latin American firms stand on R & D investment?