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Agriculture and Rural Development

Why are women farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa less productive?

Kevin McGee's picture
Researchers have documented a wide array of gender disparities in sub-Saharan Africa that have important implications for individual and household well-being. Perhaps one of the most significant disparities is in agricultural production, the primary economic activity for the majority of the population in sub-Saharan Africa. Closing this gender gap in agricultural productivity would not only improve the welfare of female farmers but could also have larger benefits for other members of the household, especially children.

​Good food and good economics both start with quality ingredients

Alberto Zezza's picture
Do economists and policy analysts pay enough attention to the quality of the data they work with? The focus in these professions seems to be much more on using and developing sophisticated econometric and statistical models, or pretty data visualization software, than on assessing the quality of the data that are fed into those models and tools (let alone working to improve the quality of the data).
 

Building feedback into project implementation: A visit to the Social Observatory

Ken Chomitz's picture
“Do you decide on what types of clothes to wear based on your own preferences?”  That’s a question on a survey instrument designed to assess whether Tamil Nadu’s Empowerment and Poverty Reduction Project (part of the Pudhu Vaazhvu Project or PVP) is actually having an impact on women’s empowerment. The question resonated strongly with the project beneficiaries I met. For them, it was a touchstone indicator of empowerment. That may be because it was crafted by a group of the women for whom the project is designed. 
 

Geographical poverty traps in rural areas: A growing global problem

Edward B. Barbier's picture
More than one-third of the rural population in developing countries lives on less-favored agricultural land, according to global spatial datasets from 2000. How, then, does this distribution influence the incidence of poverty in these countries? 

A Bitter Side to Andhra Pradesh's Ex-Post Sugarcane Permit System

Richard J. Sexton's picture

India is the World’s second largest producer of sugarcane (after Brazil). Approximately 45 million Indian farmers are involved in cane production, and cane processing is the second largest agro-processing sector in the Country. In her dissertation research on this industry (supervised by Goodhue and Sexton) Sandhya Patlolla encountered an unusual marketing practice that is unique to the Andhra Pradesh (AP) State. Private sugar processors issue ‘permits’ to selected cane growers a few weeks before harvest. These permits allow growers to deliver a specified amount of cane during a specified period of time. Farmers without a permit must sell their cane at a reduced price for manufacture into gur, a traditional Indian sweetener. The price difference averaged 43% over the six years of data acquired for our study. We wondered why sugar processors in AP would create uncertainty among farmers by using ex post permits instead of offering ex ante production contracts?

Understanding the agricultural input landscape in Sub-Saharan Africa

LTD Editors's picture

Conventional wisdom holds that Sub-Saharan African farmers use few modern inputs despite the fact that most growth-inducing and poverty-reducing agricultural growth in the region is expected to come largely from expanded use of inputs that embody improved technologies, particularly improved seed, fertilizers and other agro-chemicals, machinery, and irrigation. Yet following several years of high food prices, concerted policy efforts to intensify fertilizer and hybrid seed use, and increased public and private investment in agriculture, how low is modern input use in Africa really?

Who will feed China in the 21st Century?

Will Martin's picture

A recent surge in China’s food imports has rekindled concerns about global food demand raised by Brown (1995) and about food self-sufficiency in China. According to UN Comtrade data, China’s trade in food was roughly balanced until 2008 but subsequently moved into deficit, with net imports rising to $38.7 billion in 2013. A key question is whether China will become a massive net food importer like Japan and the Republic of Korea, which rely on world markets for more than 70 percent of grain and soybean demand.
 
China’s rapid economic growth, at 8.5 percent average annual per capita in purchasing power parity terms since economic reform began in 1978, has dramatically changed Chinese diets. While China’s per capita calorie consumption appears likely to be approaching its peak, the composition of food demand seems likely to continue to change, as consumers shift away from basic staples and towards animal-based products. This shift to greater dietary diversity imposes greater burdens on agricultural resources since animal-based diets require much more agricultural resources than vegetable-based diets.

Small Price Incentives in Land Titling Encourage the Inclusion of Women

LTD Editors's picture

During the 1990s and 2000s, nearly two dozen African countries proposed de jure land reforms extending access to formal, freehold land tenure to millions of poor households, but many of these reforms stalled. Titled land remains largely the preserve of wealthy households and, within households, mainly the preserve of men.

Does Institutional Finance Matter for Agriculture? Evidence Using Panel Data from Uganda

Shahid Khandker's picture

Smallholder agriculture in many developing countries has remained largely self-financed. However, improved productivity for attaining greater food security requires better access to institutional credit. Past efforts to extend institutional credit to smaller farmers has failed for several reasons, including subsidized operation of government-aided credit schemes. Thus, recent efforts to expand credit for smallholder agriculture that rely on innovative credit delivery schemes at market prices have received much policy interest. However, thus far the impacts of these efforts are not fully understood.

Land matters: Experts grapple with issues of measurement, ownership and equity

Merrell Tuck-Primdahl's picture

Good stewardship of land – whether fertile fields or tracts on the edges of growing cities – can drive sustainable and equitable development. Done well, good land governance can enable farmers, community leaders, city planners, remote sensing scientists, researchers and relief organizations to successfully deal with climate change, urbanization, gender equality, and food security. But the complexity of land administration, and its attendant institutional and political hurdles, often hamper progress and reinforce deep-seated inequalities and inertia instead of fostering growth and shared prosperity.

This is what makes the Annual World Bank Conference on Land and Poverty happening this week at the World Bank so important. Over 1,000 experts from 115 countries have gathered here for the event and are exploring a wide range of problems and potential solutions.

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