Malaysia sebuah negara yang cukup cemerlang bersandarkan pelbagai ukuran pencapaiannya, begitu menurut Growth Commission, yang mengetengahkan Malaysia sebagai antara ekonomi paling pantas membangun di dunia. Malaysia telah beralih daripada sebuah ekonomi berpendapatan rendah dan berorientasikan pertanian kepada ekonomi moden yang berteraskan perdagangan, malah bakal mencecah status ekonomi berpendapatan tinggi dalam hanya beberapa tahun saja lagi. Dari sudut pandangan kasar pakar ekonomi, rata-rata menganggap Malaysia sedang pesat membangun. Pertumbuhan tercatat tinggi, yakni pada 5.9% tahun lepas dengan unjuran setinggi 5.4% tahun ini, sedangkan inflasi pula rendah, iaitu hanya 1.8% setakat Mei 2018. Pendapatan juga tercatat tinggi, bahkan bakal melepasi nilai AS$12,055 yang menandakan Malaysia telah berjaya keluar daripada perangkap status pendapatan sederhana.
Malaysia is a remarkable country by many metrics, highlighted by the Growth Commission as one of the world’s fastest growing economies. It has transformed itself from a low-income, agriculture-oriented economy, to a modern, trade-oriented one that is on the cusp of reaching high-income status within the next few years. To most economists, especially those looking from the outside, Malaysia appears to be doing very well. Growth is strong, at 5.9% last year and projected at 5.4% this year. Inflation is low, at just 1.8% in May 2018, and incomes are high, approaching the magic US$12,055 threshold that marks an exit from the middle-income status that so many see as a trap.
Forty years ago in December, Deng Xiaoping delivered his historic speech "Emancipate the mind, seeking truth from facts and unite as one to face the future." This triggered four decades of reforms that have transformed China into the world’s second largest economy. By some time in the next decade, China will be among the few countries in the world that will have transitioned from low income to high income status since World War II.
Understanding the path China traveled, the circumstances under which historical decisions were made, and their effects on the course of China’s economy will inform future decision makers. Increasingly, this reflection is important to the rest of the world as more and more countries see China as an example to emulate. At the 19th Party Congress in November 2017, China accepted this mantle for the first time since the onset of reforms.
In some ways, China’s reforms were fairly mainstream. The country opened up for trade and foreign investment, liberalized prices, diversified ownership, strengthened property rights, kept inflation under control, and maintained high savings and investment. But this is simplifying the reforms and obfuscates the essence of China’s reforms: the unique steps China took reforming its system are what makes its experience of interest (see the Annex). Its gradual approach to reform was in sharp contrast to Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Although often compared, China and other transition countries were simply too different in terms of initial economic conditions, political development, and external environment.
Predominantly rural and among the poorest nations on earth, China was marred by the failure of the Great Leap Forward and the political disruptions during the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution. Integration into the global economy was minimal. Industry was inefficient, but also far less concentrated than in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Perhaps most importantly, because China retained political continuity, the country could focus on an economic and social transition instead of a political one.
Comparison with much of the Latin American reforms also seems out of place. Brazil, Mexico and Argentina were far closer to a market-based system than China, and their reforms—liberalization and macroeconomic stability—were focused on macroeconomic stabilization, whereas China’s reforms aimed for a transformation of the economic system as a whole. So there is no need to juxtapose the “Washington Consensus” with a “Beijing Consensus:” the approaches taken served very different purposes indeed.
Income growth is not the sole aim of economic development. An equally important, albeit harder to quantify objective is a sense of progress for the entire community, and a confidence that prosperity is sustainable and shared equitably across society for the long term.
The Philippines is at a fork in the road. Despite good results on the growth front, trends observed in trade competitiveness, Global Value Chain (GVC) integration and product space evolution, send worrisome signals. The country has solid fundamentals and remarkable human assets to leapfrog into the 4th Industrial Revolution – where the distinction between goods and services have become obsolete. Yet it does not get the most out of this growth, especially with regards to long-term development prospects. In order to do so, the government will have to make the right policy choices.
The World Bank Group’s Open Learning Campus (OLC) launched a free Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) today — Policy Lessons from South Korea’s Development — through the edX platform, with approximately 7,000 global learners already registered. In this MOOC, prominent representatives of academic and research institutions in South Korea and the United States narrate a multi-faceted story of Korea’s economic growth.
Why focus on South Korea? South Korea's transformation from poverty to prosperity in just three decades was virtually miraculous. Indeed, by almost any measure, South Korea is one of the greatest development success stories. South Korea’s income per capita rose nearly 250 times, from a mere $110 in 1962 to $27,440 in 2015. This rapid growth was achieved despite geopolitical uncertainties and a lack of natural resources. Today, South Korea is a major exporter of products such as semiconductors, automobiles, telecommunications equipment, and ships.
There’s a good chance you work in the service sector. Services account for 17 million jobs in Thailand, or approximately 40 percent of the Thai labor force. It encompasses diverse industries such as tourism, retail, health, communications, transportation and many sought-after professions such as architects, engineers, lawyers and doctors. Many Thai parents aspire for their children to join the service sector, and the sector carries many of Thailand’s economic hopes and ambitions.
มีโอกาสสูงที่คุณทำงานอยู่ในภาคบริการ ประเทศไทยมีงานในภาคบริการถึง 17 ล้านตำแหน่งหรือร้อยละ 40 ของกำลังแรงงานไทย ภาคบริการครอบคลุมหลายอุตสาหกรรมทั้ง การท่องเที่ยว การค้าปลีก สุขภาพ การสื่อสาร การขนส่ง รวมถึงวิชาชีพที่เป็นที่ต้องการ อาทิ สถาปนิก วิศวกร นักกฎหมาย และแพทย์ พ่อแม่หลายคนหวังว่าลูกจะสามารถเข้าทำงานในภาคบริการซึ่งเป็นภาคที่ประเทศไทยได้ฝากความหวังด้านเศรษฐกิจและความมุ่งมั่นที่จะก้าวไปสู่ประเทศที่มีรายได้สูงไว้
ប្រព័ន្ធចាត់ថ្នាក់ថ្មីឆ្នាំនេះមានមូលដ្ឋានផ្អែកលើកម្រិតគោលដែល WBG បង្កើតឡើងក្នុងប្រព័ន្ធមួយមានប្រភពនៅក្នុងឯកសារឆ្នាំ1989 របស់ខ្លួន ដែលគូសបញ្ជាក់វីធីសាស្រ្តនេះ។ តារាងខាងក្រោមបង្ហាញកម្រិតផ្សេងគ្នានៃការចាត់ថ្នាក់ផ្អែកលើចំណូលជាតិដុល (GNI):
|កម្រិតគោល||GNI កក្កដា 2016|
|ចំណូលមធ្យមកម្រិតទាប||$1,026 - $4,035|
|ចំណូលមធ្យមកម្រិតខ្ពស់||$4,036 - $12,475|