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Education

Philippines: Keeping in step with what employers want

Pablo Acosta's picture
It is said that some employees are hired because of their technical skills, but fired due to their behaviors or attitudes, such as arriving late or showing a lack of commitment to achieve the firms’ goals. This complaint seems to be frequently mentioned during our many discussions with Filipino employers.
 
But what does the hard evidence show, beyond anecdotal remarks? Do Filipino employers have difficulty finding workers with the right “soft skills” (socio-emotional skills, right attitudes and behaviors)? And if so, do we have evidence that it leads to better pay? And how are employers, employees and government responding to these labor market signals?
 

Indonesia’s Social Assistance System: Praising Reforms But More Work Ahead

Pablo Acosta's picture
Also available in: Bahasa Indonesia



When the Bank did its first social assistance public expenditure review in Indonesia in 2012, the diagnosis was clear. Despite spending significant amount of resources in “welfare”, most of them were through expensive subsidies (fuel, electricity, rice) that were not necessarily benefiting the most vulnerable segments of the society. General subsidies represented 20 percent of total national budget, but household targeted social assistance programs were already making their way, increasing from 0.3 to 0.5 percent of GDP between 2004 and 2010. Still, there was an overall dissatisfaction on what had been achieved, with the Gini coefficient rose by about 6 percentage points in the period of 2005 to 2012.

With more than 27 million people still considered poor and as one of the countries in the East Asia and the Pacific region that has one of the highest income inequality levels, the coverage expansion and social assistance system strengthening is a must. Fortunately, the situation in the social assistance sector has changed dramatically.

Sistem Bantuan Sosial Indonesia: Reformasi Berjalan Baik, Namun Masih Banyak Pekerjaan Lain

Pablo Acosta's picture
Also available in: English



Ketika Bank Dunia melakukan kajian pertama terkait pengeluaran bantuan sosial di Indonesia di tahun 2012, diagnosisnya sudah jelas. Meskipun telah banyak sumber daya yang dihabiskan untuk  "kesejahteraan", sebagian besar dari upaya ini dilakukan melalui subsidi yang mahal (bahan bakar, listrik, beras) yang belum tentu bermanfaat untuk segmen masyarakat yang paling rentan. Subsidi umum mewakili 20 persen dari total anggaran nasional, namun program bantuan sosial yang ditargetkan untuk rumah tangga telah berjalan, meningkat dari 0,3 persen PDB menjadi 0,5 persen antara tahun 2004 dan 2010. Namun, dengan koefisien Gini yang meningkat sekitar 6 poin persentase pada periode 2005-2012, masih ada ketidakpuasan dalam pencapaian selama ini.  

Dengan adanya lebih dari 27 juta orang yang termasuk golongan miskin dan sebagai salah satu negara di kawasan Asia Timur dan Pasifik yang memiliki tingkat ketimpangan pendapatan tertinggi, maka perluasan cakupan dan penguatan sistem bantuan sosial adalah suatu keharusan. Untungnya, situasi di sektor bantuan sosial telah berubah secara dramatis.

Education user committee improves teacher service performance in a remote Indonesian village

Dewi Susanti's picture
Also available in: Bahasa Indonesia
Chair and members of the Education User Committee announce the teachers’ performance scores in a meeting attended by the representatives from the Ministry of Education and Culture, the sub-district education department, the village government staff, the school staff, and community members.

Kelompok Pengguna Layanan tingkatkan kinerja layanan guru di desa terpencil di NTT

Dewi Susanti's picture
Also available in: English
Ketua dan anggota Kelompok Pengguna Layanan mengumumkan nilai kinerja guru dalam pertemuan yang dihadiri perwakilan dari Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, dinas pendidikan tingkat kabupaten, perangkat desa dan pihak sekolah, serta anggota masyarakat.

Membangun potensi UU Desa Indonesia untuk meningkatkan mutu Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini

Thomas Brown's picture
Also available in: English



Indonesia terus membuat langkah maju dalam memperluas akses pendidikan anak usia dini (PAUD) di seluruh nusantara yang sekarang mencapai sekitar  70.1% dari anak usia 3-6 tahun.  Meskipun ketersediaannya meningkat, mutu layanan masih rendah, terutama di daerah pedesaan dan daerah dengan pendapatan rendah.  Selain itu, masih ada ketergantungan pada guru yang kurang memenuhi kualifikasi yang dipersyaratkan, serta banyaknya  guru yang memperoleh pelatihan formal yang tidak memadai, atau bahkan sama sekali tidak mendapat pelatihan.

Tapping the potential of Indonesia’s Village Law to increase quality of Early Childhood Education

Thomas Brown's picture
Also available in: Bahasa Indonesia



Indonesia continues to make strides in expanding access to early childhood education (ECE) across its vast archipelago, now reaching some 70.1% of 3-6 year olds. Yet despite this increased availability, quality of services continue to be poor, especially in rural and low-income areas. In particular, there continues to be reliance on under-qualified teachers, with many having received inadequate formal training, or none at all.

Vượt qua nút thắt cổ chai trên đường tiến tới bao phủ y tế toàn dân ở Việt Nam

Sang Minh Le's picture
Also available in: English
Một bác sĩ trẻ tình nguyện đang tư vấn cho người phụ nữ dân tộc thiểu số ở huyện nghèo Bắc Hà, tỉnh Lào Cai. Ảnh: Nguyễn Huy Hoàn/Vụ Tổ chức cán bộ, Bộ Y tế

Năm 1977, khi tôi sinh ra, tôi chỉ nặng 2.5 kg như phần lớn trẻ em sinh ra trong thời kỳ kiệt quệ sau chiến tranh. Một người họ hàng của tôi chết ở tuổi 40 vì bệnh lao. Ông tôi, một lang y, rất buồn vì không thể dùng thảo dược để chữa trị căn bệnh thuộc tứ chứng nan y này, trong khi bác sĩ và thuốc chống lao lại không sẵn có ở tuyến xã. Bố mẹ tôi quyết định rời nông thôn ra thành phố để mong chúng tôi có thể tiếp cận hệ thống giáo dục và y tế tốt hơn.

Năm 1997, khi tôi hai mươi, cùng các bạn sinh viên y, tôi háo hức đi thực tập tại một trạm y tế xã ở vùng nông thôn. Các giáo sư nói rằng chúng tôi là thế hệ bác sĩ đầu tiên của Việt Nam được đào tạo để tăng cường cho y tế cơ sở. Thời kỳ này, Việt Nam có ít hơn 5 bác sĩ trên 1 vạn dân và hơn 75% số xã không có bác sĩ phục vụ. Nhưng thành thực mà nói thì không có nhiều sinh viên tốt nghiệp trường y lựa chọn công việc chăm sóc sức khỏe ban đầu, vì thế, những khó khăn về nhân lực cho y tế cơ sở còn tồn tại dai dẳng.

Learning for all: shared principles for equitable and excellent basic education systems

Raja Bentaouet Kattan's picture
More than 200 participants – including government officials, policymakers and education experts from over 20 countries gathered in Jakarta, Indonesia, for the global conference Learning for All: Shared Principles for Equitable and Excellent Basic Education Systems.

The conference addressed themes related to improving learning outcomes for all students, including how to support effective teaching and early childhood development, balancing school autonomy and accountability, and how education systems can build the skills needed for the 21st century.   
 



For the host country, Indonesia, the forum provided a valuable chance to look more closely at issues facing its education system.

How do we achieve sustained growth? Through human capital, and East Asia and the Pacific proves it

Michael Crawford's picture
Students at Beijing Bayi High School in China. Photo: World Bank


In 1950, the average working-age person in the world had  almost three years of education, but in East Asia and Pacific (EAP), the  average person had less than half that amount. Around this time, countries in  the EAP  region put themselves on a path that focused on growth  driven by human capital. They made significant and steady investments in  schooling to close the educational attainment gap with the rest of the world. While  improving their school systems, they also put their human capital to work in  labor markets. As a result, economic growth has been stellar: for four decades  EAP has grown at roughly twice the pace of the global average. What is more, no  slowdown is in sight for rising prosperity.

High economic growth and strong human capital accumulation  are deeply intertwined. In a recent paper, Daron Acemoglu and David Autor explore  the way skills and labor markets interact: Human capital is the central  determinant of economic growth and is the main—and very likely the only—means  to achieve shared growth when technology is changing quickly and raising the  demand for skills. Skills promote productivity and growth, but if there are not  enough skilled workers, growth soon chokes off. If, by contrast, skills are abundant and  average skill-levels keep rising, technological change can drive productivity  and growth without stoking inequality.

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