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Gender

The gas and mining industries take on gender-based violence in Papua New Guinea

Katherine C. Heller's picture
Photo: Tom Perry/World Bank

For many, the connection seems strange at first. What do gas and mining have to do with women’s economic and social empowerment, let alone gender-based violence? The reality is that in many extractive industries areas money from extractives flow predominantly to men. This can lead to adverse results: men have more say over how benefits are used; men have more access to related jobs, and the associated increase in available cash allows them to take second wives (which can in many cases cause violence in the home between wives); some men leave their families for jobs in the industry, while some use cash for alcohol or prostitution. 

These changes and stresses – also present when the benefits from mining don’t materialize as expected - can increase the risk of family and sexual violence, especially in fragile countries like Papua New Guinea (PNG).   

เพศสถานะในโรงเรียนไทย: เราเติบโตมาในแบบที่เราได้รับการสั่งสอนในโรงเรียนหรือไม่?

Pamornrat Tansanguanwong's picture
Also available in: English
ขณะที่ฉันรอสัมภาษณ์คุณครูท่านหนึ่งที่โรงเรียนในพื้นที่ห่างไกลในประเทศไทย ภาพโรงอาหารในช่วงพักกลางวันทำให้ฉันหวนนึกถึงวันเวลาในวัยเด็ก ระหว่างนั้นฉันมีโอกาสพูดคุยและถามเด็กนักเรียนสองสามคนไปพลางๆ ว่าโตขึ้นพวกเขาอยากเป็นอะไร เด็กผู้ชายคนหนึ่งตอบว่า “ผมอยากเป็นหมอครับ” และเด็กผู้หญิงอีกคนตอบว่า “หนูอยากเป็นพยาบาลค่ะ” คำตอบของเด็กๆ ชวนให้ฉันคิดว่าค่านิยมทางเพศนั้นมีบทบาทขึ้นในชีวิต เมื่อตอนที่เราอายุยังน้อยขนาดนี้เลยหรือ
 
ครอบครัวและโรงเรียนเป็นสถาบันหลักของเด็กๆ ในการเรียนรู้เกี่ยวกับบรรทัดฐานต่างๆ ของสังคม โดยเฉพาะอย่างยิ่งในโรงเรียน ซึ่งเป็นสถานที่ๆ เด็กๆ จะได้เรียนรู้วิธีการเข้าสังคม ค่านิยมต่างๆ และความสัมพันธ์ระหว่างบุคคล ซึ่งรวมถึงเรื่องเพศสถานะด้วย
 
ในความเชื่อของหลายคน โรงเรียนนั้นมีอิทธิพลอย่างสูงในการสร้างค่านิยมเรื่องเพศ และที่ผ่านมานั้นงานวิจัยเชิงประจักษ์ในประเทศไทยยังมีไม่มากพอที่จะสร้างความเข้าใจที่ดีเกี่ยวกับประเด็นนี้
 
ในปีที่ผ่านมาคณะกรรมการส่งเสริมและประสานงานกิจการสตรี (PCWA) ได้ดำเนินโครงการศึกษา 2 โครงการ ซึ่งได้รับการสนับสนุนจากมูลนิธิร็อคกี้เฟลเลอร์ และธนาคารโลก เพื่อสร้างงานวิจัยเชิงประจักษ์ในเรื่องของเพศสถานะในระบบการศึกษาไทย โดยมีจุดมุ่งหมายในสนันสนุนหรือกำจัดสมมติฐานต่างๆ เกี่ยวกับเรื่องกรอบความคิดและอคติทางเพศว่ามีการการเรียนรู้ การสอน การแบ่งปัน หรือ การถ่ายทอดอย่างไรในประเทศไทย 
 

Gender in Thai schools: Do we grow up to be what we are taught?

Pamornrat Tansanguanwong's picture
Also available in: ภาษาไทย

Also available in: Français | العربية

While waiting to interview a teacher at one remote school in Thailand, the lunch scene reminded me of my childhood years in school.  I spoke to the young boys and girls asking them what they wanted to be when they grow up. “I want to be a doctor,” one boy said and “I want to be a nurse when I grow up” said another girl. Their answers left me wondering how young we were when our gender values formed.
 
Families and schools are the key institutions where young children learn social norms.   

Schools, in particular, provide the playground for children to socialize and work out their social values and relationships, including gender.
 
The impact of schools in forming gender values is believed to be high, but in the past there has been little evidence-based research in Thailand to generate understanding on this issue.
 
Last year, the Promoting and Coordinating Women’s Affairs Committee (PCWA) conducted two studies, supported by the Rockefeller Foundation and the World Bank, to provide evidence-based research on the gender situation in the Thai education system. It aims to help strengthen or dispel assumptions about how gender biases and stereotypes are learned, taught, shared and transmitted in Thailand.
 

Vietnam: Breaking gender stereotypes that hinder women’s empowerment

Victoria Kwakwa's picture
Also available in: Tiếng Việt
Empowering Women with Job Opportunities


In August 2015, I traveled with colleagues to An Giang Province in southern Vietnam to visit beneficiaries of an innovative project that is helping 200 Cham ethnic minority women learn embroidery.  Selling their embroidery, they earn incomes for themselves. We were inspired by the positive change that the small amount of money invested in this project is bringing to the lives of these women and their families.
 
This project, with funding from the 2013 Vietnam Women’s Innovation Day, supported by the Vietnam Women’s Union, the World Bank, and other partners - private and public - has helped improved economic opportunities for Cham women.  All through the old traditional art of embroidery.    
 
“This training and job creation project has helped a group of women get a stable monthly income of more than two million Dong (about $100), without leaving their homes. This means they can still take care of their children and look after their homes,” Kim Chi, a local female entrepreneur and leader of the project, told us. “Women participating in the project not only learn embroidery skills, which preserve Cham traditions, but also provide opportunities to share experiences in raising children and living a healthy life style, and support each other when needed.”
 
While we were all excited about the successes under the project, a bit more reflection reminded me that unless cultural norms which require Cham women to mainly work from home, are addressed, it will be hard for projects like this, no matter how well designed, to have a lasting impact in helping Cham women realize their full economic and social potential. 
 

Xoá bỏ những định kiến về giới đang cản trở phát huy quyền và năng lực của phụ nữ tại Việt Nam

Victoria Kwakwa's picture
Also available in: English
Tạo cơ hội việc làm để trao quyền và nâng cao năng lực cho phụ nữ tại Việt Nam


Tháng 8/2015, tôi cùng đồng nghiệp đến An Giang thăm các đối tượng hưởng lợi của một dự án sáng tạo giúp 200 phụ nữ dân tộc Chăm học nghề thêu. Những phụ nữ này có thể tự tạo thu nhập bằng cách bán sản phẩm thêu của mình. Chúng tôi cảm thấy rất ấn tượng trước sự thay đổi tích cực mà khoản đầu tư nhỏ của dự án đã mang lại cho những phụ nữ này và gia đình họ.
 
Dự án nhận được sự tài trợ của Chương trình Ngày Phụ nữ Sáng tạo Việt Nam 2013 và hỗ trợ của Hội Phụ nữ Việt Nam đã cho phép Ngân hàng Thế giới và các nhà tài trợ công và tư nhân khác hỗ trợ phụ nữ Chăm, tăng cường năng lực kinh tế của mình bằng nghệ thuật thêu truyền thống.
 
“Dự án đào tạo và tạo việc làm này đã giúp một số phụ nữ tạo được thu nhập ổn định, khoảng trên 2 triệu đồng, mà không phải đi làm xa nhà. Như vậy có nghĩa là họ vẫn có thể trong nom con cái và lo việc gia đình”, bà Kim Chi, một chủ doanh nghiệp địa phương và đồng thời là người khởi xướng dự án chia sẻ. “Phụ nữ tham gia dự án không chỉ học được nghề dệt, gìn giữ truyền thống của người Chăm mà còn có thể trao đối kinh nghiệm nuôi dạy con cái, tổ chức một cuộc sống lành mạnh và giúp đỡ nhau khi cần.”
 
Tuy rất phấn khích về thành công của dự án nhưng chúng tôi cũng nhận thấy rằng nếu các chuẩn mực văn hoá đòi hỏi phụ nữ Chăm phải làm việc ở nhà không thay đổi thì khó có thể nào giúp phụ nữ Chăm phát huy quyền của mình và phát triển đầy đủ tiềm năng kinh tế và xã hội của họ thông qua các dự án tương tự, dù các dự án đó được thiết kế và thực hiện tốt như thế nào.
 

East Asia and Pacific countries can do better in labor regulation and social protection

Truman Packard's picture

Those unfamiliar with the fast growing emerging economies of East Asia are likely to think that governments in these countries let market forces and capitalism roam free, red in tooth and claw. That was certainly my impression before coming to work in the region, and generally that held at the outset of our work by the group of us that wrote a new World Bank report “East Asia Pacific At Work: Employment, Enterprise and Wellbeing” .

The report shows just how wrong we were. We could be forgiven this impression—many of us had come from assignments in Latin America and the Caribbean or in Europe and Central Asia, where the distortions and rigidities from labor regulation and poorly designed social protection are rife, and where policy makers cast envious looks at the stellar and sustained employment outcomes in East Asia.

Well, it turns out that although they came relatively late to labor regulation and social protection, many governments in the region have entered this arena with gusto. We were surprised to find that, going just by what is written in their labor codes, the average level of employment protection in East Asia is actually higher than the OECD average.

What will it take to inspire women’s leadership in the Pacific Islands?

Alison Ofotalau's picture


On gender equality – it is no secret that the Pacific Islands is lagging.

The region is home to some of the world’s highest domestic violence rates. Economic empowerment of women in many countries, particularly in Melanesia, is desperately low. Women lack access to finance, land, jobs and income. In my country, Solomon Islands, there is only one woman in parliament, and there are none in Vanuatu and Federated States of Micronesia – a country which has never yet seen a woman elected.

Does Women’s Leadership in Vietnam Matter?

Victoria Kwakwa's picture
Also available in: Tiếng Việt
High primary enrollment ratios for girls and impressive female labour force participation rates are two striking examples of Vietnam’s progress on gender equality. On female leadership, however, Vietnam has a huge unfinished agenda. The good news is that a recent study by Grant Thornton (2013) shows women’s leadership in business is growing and 30 percent of Board of Director roles in Vietnam are held by women compared to the global average of 19 percent. Women’s membership in the Communist Party has also risen from over 20 percent in 2005 to more than 30 percent in 2010.   The not so good news is that across business, government and political spheres, the face of leadership in Vietnam is still overwhelmingly male. 

In the last decade and a half, the share of women in the National Assembly has been declining. Only one out of nine chairs of National Assembly Committees is female. Women’s representation remains low in key bodies of the Communist Party: the Politburo (two out of 16), the Central Committee and the Secretariat.  In Government, the civil service has a large percentage of women but their representation in leadership is small and tends to be at lower levels: 11 percent at the division level, 5 percent at director level and only 3 percent at ministerial level (UNDP, 2012).

But should we be concerned about getting higher levels of women in leadership? Is this just about “political correctness” or can having more women in leadership in business, government and politics benefit Vietnam’s development?
 

Vai trò lãnh đạo của phụ nữ tại Việt Nam quan trọng như thế nào?

Victoria Kwakwa's picture
Also available in: English

Việt nam đã đạt được những tiến bộ rất đáng khích lệ trong bình đẳng giới như tỉ lệ đi học của trẻ em gái và tỉ lệ của lao động nữ trong lực lượng lao động rất cao. Cuối năm 2013 chúng ta có một tin vui là một nghiên cứu của Grant Thornton, cho thấy phụ nữ Việt nam ngày càng nắm nhiều vị trí lãnh đạo trong các doanh nghiệp. Tỉ lệ nữ trong hội đồng quản trị tại các doanh nghiệp Việt Nam là 30% trong khi tỉ lệ trung bình toàn cầu là 19%. Tỉ lệ đảng viên nữ trong Đảng Cộng sản Việt Nam cũng tăng từ 25% năm 2005 lên 30% năm 2010. Tuy vậy, đa số các vị trí lãnh đạo doanh nghiệp, chính quyền và đời sống chính trị vẫn là nam giới. Xét chung về vai trò của phụ nữ trên các cương vị lãnh đạo thì còn nhiều việc cần làm.  

Tỉ lệ nữ trong Quốc hội giảm dần trong thập niên vừa qua. Trong số 9 người đứng đầu các ủy ban của Quốc hội, chỉ có 1 là nữ. Số phụ nữ trong các cơ quan quan trọng nhất của Đảng như Bộ Chính chị, Ban chấp hành trung ương và Ban bí thư còn rất thấp (chỉ có 2 nữ trong số 16 ủy viên Bộ Chính trị). Về phía chính quyền, tuy tỉ lệ nữ công chức lớn, nhưng tỉ lệ lãnh đạo nữ lại khá thấp và ở cấp thấp: tỉ lệ lãnh đạo nữ cấp phòng là 11%, cấp sở là 5% và cấp bộ là 3% (UNDP, 2012).

Câu hỏi đặt ra là liệu chúng ta có nên coi vấn đề có thêm nhiều phụ nữ vào cương vị lãnh đạo là quan trọng không? Cần làm như vậy cho “phải phép” hay liệu việc nhiều phụ nữ tham gia lãnh đạo doanh nghiệp, chính quyền và đời sống chính trị thực sự mang lại lợi ích cho quá trình phát triển của đất nước?
 

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