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中国“长寿之乡”丽水:致力构建气候适应型城市

Barjor Mehta's picture
Also available in: English
图片:吴皛

过去三十年来,中国速度空前的城镇化使得2.6亿农民工从农业转移到其它生产领域,也帮助5亿人摆脱了贫困,推动中国经济连续三十年以年均10%的速度增长。与此同时,2000年至2014年间,天气相关灾害造成了4.645万亿元(约合7490亿美元)的经济损失。

强有力证据显示,气候变化正在改变灾害格局。据观察,特大暴雨的频率和严重程度自上世纪五十年代以来大幅上升;而未来气候情景模拟显示,降雨的年际变化可能会进一步增大,从而加剧洪灾风险和缺水严重程度。

过去二十年间,中国浙江省丽水市遭受洪水灾害、山体滑坡以及高温酷热之苦。如今, 200多万丽水人有很多自豪之处。丽水被认定为中国最著名的风景如画的生态之城、养生天堂和长寿之乡,这得益于丽水市和浙江省政府官员高度重视,首先弄清气候变化带来的问题的根源,随后全面规划、设计和实施了技术上完善的项目。这些项目与穿城而过的河流和谐相依,与周边丘陵地带贯穿全市的天然暴雨排水系统浑然一体。

In Lishui, China’s “home of longevity”: working towards resilience and adaptation to climate change

Barjor Mehta's picture
Also available in: 中文
Photo:Xiao Wu

Over the past three decades, China’s unprecedented pace of urbanization has allowed more than 260 million migrants to move from agriculture to more productive activities. This has helped 500 million people escape poverty and for China to grow at an average 10 percent a year for three consecutive decades. At the same time, between 2000 and 2014, weather-related disasters caused more than RMB 4.645 trillion ($749 billion) in damages.

There is strong evidence that climate change is altering the profile of hazards. The observed frequency and severity of extremely heavy rain storms since the 1950s in China have significantly increased and future climate scenarios suggest that interannual variability in rainfall may increase further, aggravating the risk of flooding and as well as severe lack of water.

Over the past two decades, the city of Lishui in Zhejiang Province of China suffered from devastating floods, landslides, as well as heat waves. Today, the over 2 million people of Lishui have a lot to be proud of. Their city is recognized as China’s “top ecological, picturesque paradise for healthy life and home of longevity”. This is the result of close attention from city and provincial officials in understanding the root causes of the problems caused by the changing climate. This has been followed by inclusive planning, design and implementation of technically sound projects that are in harmony with the rivers flowing through the city in concert with the surrounding hilly terrain’s natural and city-wide storm water drainage systems.

Banking on Myanmar’s financial sector: The road ahead

Nagavalli Annamalai's picture

Myanmar in 2012, when we started our financial sector engagement, and Myanmar today seem like two different worlds. Back then, sim cards cost close to US$500, visitors carried wads of crisp, new dollar bills, Yangon streets were filled with old models of Toyotas and Nissans, while the capital Nay Pyi Taw had only rickety hotels. Now streets lined with old shops have given way to $1 sim cards, brand new car models, international hotel chains and gleaming new shopping malls. ATMs and “We accept Visa and Master Card” signs are now nearly ubiquitous in the country’s cities.

Улаанбаатар хотын өрнөл—1990-ээд он болон одоо үеийн гэрэл зургууд

Jim Anderson's picture
Also available in: English
1990-ээд онд Монголд өнгөрүүлсэн цаг мөчөөс миний харамсаж явдаг нэг зүйл бол илүү олон гэрэл зураг дараагүй явдал юм. Гэхдээ би ганцаараа тийм биш байлаа. Хүмүүс тухайн үед тэр бүр зургийн аппарат авч явдаггүй байсны дээр 35 мм-ийн Никон аппараатаа гаргаж ирэх бүрт маш олон хүн намайг ширтэж байгааг би анзаардаг байлаа. Зургийн халсийг Бээжин хотоос авч, зургаа ч мөн тэндээ боловсруулах шаардлагатай байснаас тийм ч олон зураг авч чадаагүй ч гэсэн аз болж хэдэн зураг авч үлджээ.

1997 оны хавар би Монголын албан бус салбарын тухай судалгаа хийсэн нь Монголын хувьд энэ чиглэлээр хийгдсэн анхны судалгаа байсан ба мэдээлэл маш хомс байлаа. Албан бус салбар ямар хурдацтай өссөн, ямар хэмжээтэй байсан, энэ салбарт ажиллаж байгаа хүмүүс өөрсдийгөө хэрхэн харж зохион байгуулдаг, албан бус салбар дахь бизнес эрхлэлт, зах зээл хэрхэн өөрийгөө зохицуулж байсан зэрэг нь миний сонирхлыг ихэд татаж байв. 

Статистик мэдээллийг судлахын зэрэгцээ, таксиний жолооч, гутал тослогч жаалуудтай ярилцлага хийн мэдээлэл цуглуулдаг байсан энэ үе миний ажлын хувьд тэрнээс өмнө болон хойно хэзээ ч байгаагүй хамгийн сонирхолтой үе байсан. Төрийн албан хаагчдаас жижиглэнгийн худалдаа эрхлэх ТҮЦ-ний зөвшөөрлийг өгөх эсэхээ хэрхэн шийддэг байсан, албан бус (хувь хүмүүс өөрсдөө ажиллуулдаг, бие даасан) автобуснуудтай хэрхэн хамтран ажилладаг талаар ярилцлага авч байв. Ийнхүү тал бүрээс цуглуулсан түүхүүдийн хамт толилуулах тоо баримтыг цуглуулахаар Үндэсний статистикийн газар болон Улаанбаатар хотын статистикийн газартай хамтран асуулга хийдэг байлаа.

Dynamic Ulaanbaatar—photographs from 1990s and the present

Jim Anderson's picture
Also available in: Mongolian
One regret from my time in Mongolia in the 1990s is that I did not take more pictures. I wasn’t alone in this respect—people generally didn’t carry cameras, and whenever I pulled out my 35mm Nikon I got a lot of stares.  I had to buy and develop film in Beijing and, well, I just didn’t take nearly as many photos as I should have.  Happily, I did take some.

In the spring of 1997 I conducted the research for a study of Mongolia’s informal sector. It was the first such study in the country and there was a blank slate in terms of information.  I was fascinated by how rapidly it had grown, by questions about the size of the sector, by how people working in the informal sector see and organized themselves, by informal entrepreneurship and the spontaneity of markets.

I had as much fun as I have had in my career before or since, poring through statistics, interviewing taxi drivers and shoe shine boys. I interviewed officials on how they decide to provide permission for kiosks to set up shop and how they collaborate with informal (i.e., private, independent) buses. I worked with the NSO and the Ulaanbaatar city statistics department to do a survey to put some numbers with the stories.

Project Safety 101 for Kids in Tuvalu

Nora Weisskopf's picture



When I was in primary school, there was a large construction project happening on the road in front of our house. I remember it was loud, dusty and the subject of constant complaints from our neighbors. However, my most vivid memory is of all the shiny, majestic machinery being delivered by the workers in their bright orange uniforms.

There was an immediate fascination among the children with these powerful and temptingly dangerous machines. Of course our parents all drilled us with the same message – “Do not go near, do not touch, do not interfere with the nice men repairing the roads,” and so we abided, but the curiosity and thrill of potentially touching these metal monsters never entirely subsided. Luckily, working in the transport sector now I get to be around construction equipment all the time!

Second-generation capacity development: A story of Malaysia-Laos knowledge exchange on reforming civil service

Jana Kunicova's picture

What do you imagine when you hear the words “capacity development”? Most development professionals associate capacity development with training, seminars and perhaps study tours.  Most of the countries the World Bank works in require a significant boost in their capability to implement policies, programs and projects, especially in countries supported by the Bank’s fund to the poorest, International Development Association (IDA).

For training to be sustainable and have high impact, it should be targeted to a particular public sector problem, and coupled with initiatives to improve organizational and institutional capacity. 

How do we achieve sustained growth? Through human capital, and East Asia and the Pacific proves it

Michael Crawford's picture
Students at Beijing Bayi High School in China. Photo: World Bank


In 1950, the average working-age person in the world had  almost three years of education, but in East Asia and Pacific (EAP), the  average person had less than half that amount. Around this time, countries in  the EAP  region put themselves on a path that focused on growth  driven by human capital. They made significant and steady investments in  schooling to close the educational attainment gap with the rest of the world. While  improving their school systems, they also put their human capital to work in  labor markets. As a result, economic growth has been stellar: for four decades  EAP has grown at roughly twice the pace of the global average. What is more, no  slowdown is in sight for rising prosperity.

High economic growth and strong human capital accumulation  are deeply intertwined. In a recent paper, Daron Acemoglu and David Autor explore  the way skills and labor markets interact: Human capital is the central  determinant of economic growth and is the main—and very likely the only—means  to achieve shared growth when technology is changing quickly and raising the  demand for skills. Skills promote productivity and growth, but if there are not  enough skilled workers, growth soon chokes off. If, by contrast, skills are abundant and  average skill-levels keep rising, technological change can drive productivity  and growth without stoking inequality.

Water Access in the Philippines: Fixing the Institutions that Fix the Pipes

Aileen Castro's picture
Photo: NorthEyes Production/World Bank

As we celebrate World Water Day, I find myself thinking about my work and one central question: how do you reach 8 million Filipinos with no access to clean water? I remember growing up in Pampanga, a province north of Manila, and visiting my aunt’s house every weekend where I had to pump water from a deep well and carry buckets so we could water plants, wash clothes, and clean the backyard pig pen. Fortunately, these days there’s always water from the faucet so we don’t work as hard to do chores.

But the story isn’t the same for everyone. While our local water utility largely improved its services over the years, I can’t say the same for the rest of the country, especially in rural areas. While there are already over 4,700 water utilities in the Philippines, about half are very small and unregulated.

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