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To unlock student potential in East Asia Pacific, be demanding and supportive of teachers

Michael Crawford's picture
Also available in: Bahasa Indonesia

Among the 29 countries and economies of the East Asia and Pacific region, one finds some of the world’s most successful education systems. Seven out of the top 10 highest average scorers on internationally comparable tests such as PISA and TIMSS are from the region, with Japan, Republic of Korea, Singapore, and Hong Kong (China) consistently among the best. 

But, more significantly, one also finds that great performance is not limited to school systems in the region’s high-income countries. School systems in middle-income Vietnam and China (specifically the provinces of Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu, and Guangdong) score better than the average OECD country, despite having much lower GDP per capita. What is more, scores from both China and Vietnam show that poor students are not being left behind. Students from the second-lowest income quintile score better than the average OECD student, and even the very poorest test takers outscore students from some wealthy countries. As the graph below shows, however, other countries in the region have yet to achieve similar results.

Diperlukan banyak orang untuk mengatasi tantangan perkembangan anak usia dini Indonesia

Thomas Brown's picture
Also available in: English



“Masa depan Indonesia dipertaruhkan”, demikian dikatakan oleh Camilla Holmemo dalam sambutan pembukaannya pada Konferensi Kebijakan Perkembangan Anak Usia Dini yang diselenggarakan pada bulan Juli 2017 di Jakarta. Ucapan tersebut dikatakan oleh Program leader for human development, poverty and social development Bank Dunia di Indonesia kepada peserta kegiatan dengan menyoroti kurangnya akses layanan pendidikan dan perkembangan anak usia dini (ECED / Early Childhood Education and Development) dan tingginya masalah stunting di Indonesia.
 
Walaupun Indonesia telah menjadi negara berpendapatan menengah, satu dari tiga anak di bawah usia lima tahun mengalami stunting, dan menempati posisi kelima tertinggi di dunia. Bagi anak-anak ini, kemungkinan untuk menjadi warganegara yang produktif sangat sulit untuk dicapai – kecuali bila kita melakukan sesuatu tentang hal itu sekarang.

It takes a village to tackle Indonesia’s early childhood development challenges

Thomas Brown's picture
Also available in: Bahasa Indonesia



“Indonesia’s future is at stake”, states Camilla Holmemo in her opening address at the Early Childhood Development Policy Conference, held in July 2017 in Jakarta. The program leader for human development, poverty and social development of the World Bank in Indonesia rallies the audience by highlighting the lack of access to early childhood education and development (ECED) services and the high incidence of child stunting in Indonesia.
 
Despite the country’s middle-income status, one in three children under five are stunted, the fifth highest rate in the world. For these children, the likelihood of becoming productive citizens is significantly hampered  – unless we do something about it now. 

Risk of sea-level rise: high stakes for East Asia & Pacific region countries

Susmita Dasgupta's picture
Home and boats on the water. Photo: ©Curt Carnemark/ World Bank

Sea level is rising, and the rise in sea level will continue beyond the year 2100, even if greenhouse gas emissions are stabilized today.  Expected to rise by at least one meter during this century according to the current scientific consensus, sea levels may even rise by three meters by 2100, in light of the new evidence on ice-cliff instability of the Antarctic.
 

For new evidence on ice-cliff instability of the Antarctic and its implications for the magnitude and time-phasing of global sea-level rise, see
https://www.nature.com/articles/nature17145
http://www.nature.com/news/antarctic-model-raises-prospect-of-unstoppable-ice-collapse-1.19638
https://climatefeedback.org/evaluation/antarctica-doomsday-glaciers-could-flood-coastal-cities-grist-eric-holthaus/  
 

Dangers of sea-level rise include but are not limited to:

  • land loss from the permanent inundation of low-lying coastal areas;
  • intensification of inundation from cyclonic storm surges;
  • loss of critical coastal wetlands, for example mangroves; 
  • progressive salinization of soil and water.

Getting to equal in Mongolia’s labor market (and leadership market)

Jim Anderson's picture
Also available in: Mongolian
Photo: © World Bank

Yesterday morning I participated in the “Ring the Bell for Gender Equality” event at the opening of the Mongolian Stock Exchange. A global event sponsored by the IFC and other partners*, the event highlights how economies and individual companies benefit from efforts to close gender gaps in their operations and governing structures.

Earlier I had dug out my notes from a survey of listed companies conducted in 1996.  Only 25 of the 249 companies we surveyed counted women as general directors. Today, women lead around six percent of the top 100 listed firms – that is, fewer than 20 years ago.  This does not mean that there has not been progress. The last time the World Bank Group enterprises surveys were done, Mongolia had a similar or larger share of firms with women in top management. This number is higher than the region’s average, but such leadership roles were more heavily weighted to smaller firms.  Whereas 31 percent of medium-sized firms – that is, those with 20-99 employees – had female top managers, only 17 percent of firms with over 100 employees had women in senior management.

Getting to equal at the top requires more systematic scrutiny of the factors that support or hinder women’s economic empowerment throughout their lives. No one is born a CEO.

So, where are the gender gaps?

Монгол улсын хөдөлмөрийн зах зээлд (мөн манлайллын зах зээлд) тэгш байдлыг бий болгох нь

Jim Anderson's picture
Also available in: English
Photo: © World Bank

Өчигдөр би Монголын Хөрөнгийн Биржийн нээлтийн үеэр ОУСК санхүүжүүлж, бусад түншүүдийн* хамт зохион байгуулсан "Жендэрийн тэгш байдлын төлөө хонх цохих" олон улсын арга хэмжээнд оролцлоо. Тус арга хэмжээ нь үйл ажиллагаа болон засаглалын бүтцэд жендерийн ялгаатай байдлыг арилгаснаар аливаа бизнес, аж ахуйн нэгж, компаниудад ямар үр өгөөжтэй болохыг онцлон тэмдэглэж, аж ахуйн нэгж, олон нийтийг тэгш байдалд уриалан дууддаг.

Энэ арга хэмжээнээс өмнө би 1996 онд хийгдсэн бүртгэлтэй компаниудын судалгаанаас өөрийн хийсэн тэмдэглэлээ гаргаж үзсэн юм. Судалгаанд хамрагдсан 249 компанийн зөвхөн 25 нь л эмэгтэй ерөнхий захиралтай байжээ. Өнөөдөр эмэгтэйчүүд дэлхийн шилдэг 100 бүртгэлтэй компаний 6 орчим хувийг эмэгтэйчүүд удирдаж байгаа нь 20 жилийн өмнөх үзүүлэлттээс бага байна.  Гэвч энэ нь ахиц дэвшил гараагүй гэсэн үг биш юм. Хамгийн сүүлд хийгдсэн Дэлхийн Банк Группын аж ахуйн нэгжүүдийн судалгаанаас харахад Монгол улс нь эмэгтэй удирдлагатай аж ахуйн нэгжийн тоо хэмжээгээр ижил эсвэл илүү байгаа нь ажиглагдсан юм. Хэдийгээр энэ үзүүлэлт бүс нутгийн дунджаас өндөр байгаа боловч эмэгтэйчүүд манлайллын үүрэг гүйцэтгэж байгаа аж ахуйн нэгжүүд нь гол төлөв жижиг компаниуд байна. Дунд хэмжээний аж ахуйн нэгж буюу 20-99 ажилтантай компаниудын 31 хувь эмэгтэй менежертэй, 100-с дээш ажилтантай компаниудын 17 хувь л эмэгтэй удирдлагатай байна.  

Компаний дээд удирдлагад жендерийн тэгш байдлыг хангахын тулд эмэгтэйчүүдийн эдийн засгийн чадавхийг дэмжиж эсвэл сааруулж буй хvчин зvйлсийг илүү системтэйгээр судалж нягтлахыг шаардлагатай. Хэн ч төрөхдөө гүйцэтгэх захирал болоод төрдөггүй шүү дээ.

Тэгвэл, жендерийн тэгш бус байдал хаана байна вэ?

Big challenges for big cats: Supporting wildlife law enforcement in Lao PDR

George Stirrett's picture
A clouded leopard in the Nam-Et Phou Louey National Protected Area, taken with a camera trap.
Photo: ©Wildlife Conservation Society

Lao PDR is rich with biodiversity. The country is home to emblematic animals such as Asian Elephants, Gaur, Green Peafowls, Asiatic Black Bears, and northern White-Cheeked Gibbons. Mountainous topography and low human density have allowed the country to preserve its endemic flora and fauna for centuries, to the extent that some species are still being identified like the Saola, one of the world’s rarest large mammals, only discovered in Laos in 1992.

But recent economic growth coupled with an exploding demand for wildlife and wildlife products have fueled increased pressure on Lao PDR’s native species. Forest encroachment, illegal logging and wildlife poaching have eroded biodiversity. Forest cover has declined dramatically since 1992, the number of wildlife species listed as endangered has increased, and some iconic species like tigers have not been sighted for years. At the same time, Lao PDR has become a gateway for international wildlife trafficking: illegal trafficking of ivory, pangolins and other CITES-listed items have transited through the country due to limited enforcement capacity.

Sustainable Development Goals and the role of Islamic finance

Abayomi Alawode's picture
 bigstock/joyfull
Malaysia is home to a vibrant Islamic banking sector. Islamic finance has grown rapidly in the past two decades and it now stands as a potential contributor in supporting the Sustainable Development Goals. Photo: bigstock/joyful

Islamic finance has the potential to play a crucial role in supporting the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). In the face of significant financing needs for the SDGs, Islamic finance has untapped potential as a substantial and non-traditional source of financing for the SDGs.

The growth of Islamic finance has been rapid at 10-12% annually over the past two decades. By 2015, the industry had surpassed US$1.88 trillion in size. Islamic finance has emerged as an effective tool for financing development worldwide, including in non-Muslim countries, and may prove to be an important contributor towards realizing the SDGs. 

The Third Annual Symposium on Islamic Finance was held in Kuala Lumpur in November 2017, co-organized by the World Bank Group, Islamic Development Bank, International Center for Education in Islamic Finance (INCEIF) and Guidance Financial Group to explore the potential contributions that Islamic Finance can make to achieving the SDGs.

“新加坡又如何呢?”——全世界最佳公共住房项目的成功经验

Abhas Jha's picture
Also available in: Mongolian
English

Photo of Singapore by Lois Goh / World Bank

随着第九届世界城市论坛在吉隆坡的召开,各国政府在实施《新城市议程》过程中努力解决的难题之一是如何规模化提供优质经济适用房,后者是可持续发展目标11——构建可持续城市和社区的一个关键内容。
 
我从前在拉美地区从事经济适用房相关工作过程中,我们持续向世行借款客户提出的一条意见是:政府部门自身建设和提供住房并不是个好主意。相反,用(已故)世行知名经济学家史蒂文·梅奥的话讲,我们应该使住房市场发挥作用。对此意见,世行借款客户一般会回应说,“那新加坡又如何呢?”,此时我们会说,新加坡案例很独特而且不可复制。

[更详细了解世界银行参加世界城市论坛的相关情况]
 

中国40年改革进程反思

Bert Hofman's picture
Also available in: English
摄影 ©李文勇/世界银行

40年前的12月,邓小平发表了具有历史意义的讲话《解放思想,实事求是,团结一致向前看》,开启了使中国成为世界第二大经济体的40年改革进程。下个10年,中国将成为二战以来从低收入进入高收入行列的少数几个国家之一。

了解中国走过的路、做出历史性决定的背景及其对中国经济的影响,对未来的决策者是有益的借鉴。随着越来越多的国家把中国看成效法的榜样,这种反思对于世界各国愈显重要。在去年11月召开的中共十九大上,中国自改革开放以来首次承担起这一责任。

在某种意义上,中国的改革是很主流的。中国开放贸易和投资,开展物价改革,实行所有权结构多元化,强化产权,控制通胀,维持高储蓄率和投资率。但这么说是把中国的改革简单化了,模糊了中国改革的实质,即,中国体制改革采取的独特步骤提供了有意义的经验,其渐进式改革模式与东欧和前苏联形成鲜明对照。虽然中国和其他转轨经济体常常被加以比较,但他们无论是在初始经济条件、政治发展还是外部环境方面都截然不同。

作为以农业为主的世界最贫困的国家之一,中国在经历大跃进失败和文革破坏之后伤痕累累,与全球经济几乎毫无联系,工业效率低下,但也远不像东欧和前苏联那么集中。或许最重要的是,由于中国保持了政治体制的延续性,所以才能集中精力进行经济和社会转轨而不是政治转轨。

同大部分拉美国家的改革做比较似乎也不合适巴西、墨西哥和阿根廷远比中国更接近市场经济制度,而且他们的改革——自由化和宏观经济稳定——着眼点在宏观经济稳定,而中国的改革则以整个经济体制转型为目的。因此没有必要将“华盛顿共识”与“北京共识”相提并论,两者采取的方式服务于完全不同的目的。

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