More testing is not the answer to Harry's last question: what are we going to do about not giving so many students basic skills? We know the problem, we really don't need more thermometers, we need cures. And the cures are straightforward: well-educated and well-paid teachers, much smaller class sizes; good learning materials, facilities conducive to learning, as well as decent sustainable livelihoods for families, good health care, etc. Harry's 2-cent solution is just that and about all it's worth. The Bank's 2018 WDR mentions all the investments above but then goes back to the Bank's standard response that more money may not be needed if we improve the efficiency with which money is spent. What nonsense! What about UNESCO's estimate of a $40 billion annual shortfall! Yes, it is important to look at educational outcomes but we need huge investment in educational inputs to do anything about them. Harry and the Bank need to put their money where their mouth is.