At a very general level, the testing issue has to be called into question. What is the value of comparing countries that differ markedly. Performance on tests relates to class. Children in a lowly populated, rich country will outperform a country with large populations where poverty is a challenge. Cultural and social capital ultimately shape results. In developing countries as a result of political pressure, there is enormous pressure to improve performance. My view is that countries, especially, low and middle income countries should develop global strategies to improve performance based on using schools to compensate for poverty. This is the only way one could then use international tests more usefully.