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Five Steps to Improve Girls’ Education and Job Prospects

Mattias Lundberg's picture

What comes first to your mind when you think about girls’ education? There may be a good chance that you remember a particular girl you met who could not go to primary school. Or perhaps you will visualize one of those great pictures of smiling and studious girls attending primary school in a developing country thanks to a particular project or intervention.
Both pictures are correct, but they account for only a small part of the story.

Until recently, many girls did not even complete primary school.  But dramatic progress has been achieved toward gender equity in basic education as part of the Millennium Development Goals. While more remains to be done, today’s challenges for improving girls’ education, skills, and job prospects have changed.
More attention needs to be given to what happens before and after primary school. For girls and young women to acquire the skills they need, five steps – suggested by the World Bank’s STEP framework – are needed.  The good news is that at each step, we have a good idea of which interventions can help girls fulfill their potential.
Five Steps to Improving Girls' Education, Skills and Job Prospects

First, give girls a strong foundation through early childhood development (ECD). Disadvantages built early in life are difficult to remedy, but effective ECD programs can avoid such disadvantages and thereby yield high payoffs.  ECD programs build the technical, cognitive, and behavioral skills conducive to high productivity later in life. Successful interventions emphasize, among other areas, nutrition, stimulation, and basic cognitive skills.
A new study suggests that in Jamaica, 20 years after an ECD intervention was conducted, the average earnings of beneficiaries – boys and girls - were 42% higher than those of the control group. While such large gains might not be obtained if all children were benefiting from such interventions, which is the ultimate aim, it is nevertheless clear that early psychosocial stimulation can substantially improve future earnings.
The second step focuses on basic education. Gaps remain, to be sure: Data from a forthcoming paper suggest that in 24 low-income countries, only 34% of girls in the poorest 20% of households complete primary school, compared with 72% of girls in the richest 20% of households. These income-related gaps can be reduced through interventions to reduce the opportunity cost of schooling for girls, such as conditional cash transfers.
In Yemen, one such new program targeting girls in grades 4-9 in disadvantaged communities is reaching close to 40,000 girls. In addition to increasing enrollment and attendance, we also need to ensure that all girls who go to school can learn—by building stronger schooling systems with clear learning standards, good teachers, adequate resources, and a proper regulatory environment that emphasizes accountability.
But learning for what? Education for its own sake certainly has an intrinsic value, but education and training that proves useful in the workplace is also essential.  The third step in helping girls grow is to provide them with job-relevant skills that employers actually demand, or that they can use in launching their own business.
Many countries have achieved (or are making rapid progress toward) gender parity in basic education.  By contrast, labor force participation in most developing countries remains substantially lower for young women than men.  In India, Nigeria and South Africa, more than three-quarters of all girls aged 15-24 are not engaged in paid work and are not looking for work. And according to the International Income Distribution Database, nearly 40% of young women globally are either unemployed or ‘idle’ (not in education, nor work). In addition are the millions of young women who are engaged in unpaid or unproductive work.
Clearly, this represents a significant loss to their families as well as to economic growth. How can we get young women into productive work? According to new research conducted as part of the World Bank’s Adolescent Girls’ Initiative, a program in Liberia that provided girls age 16-27 with life skills, training, and job placement assistance increased employment by nearly 50%, and nearly doubled incomes. The program also had positive impacts on self-confidence, satisfaction with job outcomes, and household food security.
Step four relates to the creation of an environment that encourages investments in knowledge and creativity.  This requires innovation-specific skills and investments to help connect people with ideas, as well as risk management tools that facilitate innovation.  Again, girls are at a disadvantage when compared with boys, with fewer opportunities and, therefore, lower rates of entrepreneurship in many countries.
A new program in Uganda run by the nongovernmental organization BRAC provides girls age 14-20 with a safe space, life skills training, and livelihoods training for self-employment based on local market conditions. This program generated significant income gains from self-employment with no adverse effects on schooling outcomes. In addition, childbearing among beneficiaries declined, the proportion of girls using condoms increased, and the incidence of forced sex decreased.
Finally, and this is the fifth and last step, it is important that societies promote flexible, efficient, and secure labor markets. Apart from avoiding rigid job protection regulations while strengthening income protection systems, providing intermediation services for workers and firms is important to transform skills into actual employment and productivity.
This matters even more for girls than for boys, as girls are often more constrained and have limited access to opportunities, which in turn can lead to diminished expectations.  But this can be overcome, at least in part, by providing information on how markets really work.  For example, research suggests that women who were shown videos of other women working in traditionally male occupations, such as auto repair, and who were told that wages were higher in such fields, were more likely to choose and enroll in training in those traditionally male-dominated fields.
When thinking about girls’ education, there’s nothing wrong with picturing primary schools.  But to help girls succeed in life, this is not enough: We need to pay equal attention to what happens before and after primary school. Girls and young women entering the 21st century job market will need skills and knowledge that can be developed only throughout their lifetime. They need our support at every step along the way.

Follow the World Bank education team on Twitter: @WBG_Education



Submitted by Julie park on

Excellent! I applaud the author of this article and agree wholeheartedly with the authors 5 points, however I have just one point to make. Unless the issues surrounding the attitudes towards women are addressed in those countries who allow young girls to be forced into marriage, the young girls will still be too frightened to step out of the shadows of the elders in their families who have the belief that women are merely chattels, to enter into the exciting and freedom giving world of education.

Submitted by Aeeree on

hi, awesome research and good idea. Sensitization and dialogue is needed, people should stop valuing women as source of income and housekeeping alone but if a woman is educated much is gain from her and a nation is totally changed.

Submitted by aqif on

i would like to request the government to put extra efforts for promoting education in girls especially in rural areas.a part from that there are so many ngo working in different feilds i am also requesting them to aware peoples regarding this important issue in true spirit

Submitted by mikemilton on

really awesome research and good idea man..
if you consider this tips in routine life than chances will be increase to get jobs for Girls..

Submitted by Odongo Dickens on

Excellent research but let also try as much possible to change some society cultural norms and believe towards girl child.Sensitization and dialogue is needed, people should stop valuing women as source of income and housekeeping alone but if a woman is educated much is gain from her and a nation is totally changed. this should be a clear message.

Submitted by Mehwish shabir on

i like the whole steps but i realy like that to focus on the basic study of girls

Submitted by Ronit on

awesome research and good idea. Sensitization and dialogue is needed, people should stop valuing women as source of income and housekeeping alone but if a woman is educated much is gain from her and a nation is totally changed.

Education is more than reading, writing, and arithmetic. It is one of the most important investments a country can make in its people and its future and is critical to reducing poverty and inequality.

Submitted by Raj on

I hope this will do for improving girl education in india . Salute for your Great Post

Submitted by soman on

education is must for all girl, all girl should have to read. it is very important part for girl

Submitted by Robert on

Education has been held as a vital element to improve the status of girl child and woman. Female literacy in Odisha continues to be very low. Girls do not have equal access to education and educational institutions as observed in low attendance rate, high drop-outs, low completion rates and repetition rates in schools and colleges. Though the educational enrolment in formal school especially in elementary level shows an increasing trend, it reverses in the upper primary level and higher secondary level.

Submitted by Golalaaa on

Good post as well as good comments & thought for female education. Education is necessary for good governance in india.

Submitted by Samar on

How 'bout applying this to the USA? Looking at the statistics it's more than obvious there is a need. In the family of man, we're only as strong as our weakest link ... and the chain's been broken for a long time now.

Submitted by Ankit Swami on

Education is the one factor which is forming the base of the society so how can we expect a better world without education. I don't know, Why people become reluctant when it comes to girl education?
Girl must be equally treated and educated.

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