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د افغانستان د راتلونکي پر وړاندې درې ستر ګواښونه: د بې وزلۍ، نا امنۍ اوسستي اقتصادي پرمختګ زياتوالى

Silvia Redaelli's picture
Also available in: English | دری

دوه اوونۍ وړاندې يو ټانکر د نورو زرګونه موټرونو په کتار کې له ډېرو دولتي ودانيو په تېرېدو سره د زنبق څلورلارې له ګڼې ګوڼې ډکې سيمې ته ورسېد. ياد ټانکر د ښار په ګڼه ګوڼه سيمه کې، چې ١٥٠٠ کيلوګرامه چاودېدونکي توکي په کې ځاى پرځاى شوي وو، چاودنه وکړه. دا مهال د سهار ٨:٢٢ بجې وې، هغه وخت چې ډېرى کارکوونکي د خپلو دندو او زده کوونکي د ښوونځيو پر لوري روان وي. يادې درنې چاودنې د ١٥٠ هېوادوالو ژوند واخيست او سلګونه نور په کې ټپيان شول، دا د هغو زرګونو پېښو يوه ده، چې د افغانانو ژوند ترې اغېزمن شوى دى.

 په وروستيو کلونو کې دا ډول  د نا امنۍ پېښې په دوامداره توګه د زياتېدو په حال کې دي او لمن يې تقريباً د هېواد پر ډېرى سيمو غوړېدلې ده. دغه راز په ٢٠١٦ زېږديز کال کې د امنيتي پېښو او عامو وګړو د مرګ ژوبلې شمېره بې سارې وه. د سولې نړيوال بنسټ شمېرو له مخې، افغانستان په ٢٠١٦ کال کې له سوريې، سوېلي سوډان او عراق وروسته د نړۍ څلورم نا امنه هېواد بلل شوى دى. د نا امنۍ جغرافيې د پراخوالي له امله د بې ځايه شوو هېوادوالو شمېر لوړ شوى دى. د ملګرو ملتونو سازمان د وروستيو معلوماتو پر بنسټ؛ افغانستان کې يوازې په ٢٠١٦ زېږديز کال کې له ٦٧٠٠٠٠ زياتې کورنۍ له خپلو کورونو بې ځايه شوې دي.
د "افغانستان کې د بېوزلۍ وضعيت: پرمختګونه له خطر سره مخ دي" تر نامه لاندې د نړيوال بانک وروستى راپور ښيي، چې نا امني او تاوتريخوالى له شک پرته د افغانانو سولې او هوساينې ته ډېر زيانونه اړوي. د افغانانو د ټولنيز وضعيت سروې د معلوماتو پر بنسټ، په اټکلي ډول د افغانانو ١٧ سلنه کورنۍ په ٢٠١٣-٢٠١٤ او ١٥ سلنه يې په ٢٠١١-٢٠١٢ کلونو کې له امنيتي پېښو سره مخ شوې دي. دا شمېر له هغو شمېرو سره ډېر ورته والى لري، چې د ملګرو ملتونو سازمان د امنيتي برخې له لوري يې په اړه راپور ورکړل شوى و.

 نا امنيو او شخړو خلکو ته لا ډېر زيانونه اړولي او په ځانګړي ډول بيا هغه کورنۍ، چې په نا مساعدو سيمو کې ژوند کوي؛ له سختو امنيتي ستونزو سره مخ دي. د بېلګې په ډول هغه کورنۍ چې په نا امنه سيمو کې ژوند کوي، له نا امنيو سربېره له کرنيزو طبيعي او ساري ناروغيو شکايتونه کوي، په ٢٠١٣- ٢٠١٤ کلونو کې شا وخوا ٥٣ سلنه هغه کورنۍ چې په ډېرو نا امنه سيمو کې ژوند کوي، ډېرى کسانو يې د نا امنۍ اړونده پېښو په اړه راپور ورکړى، چې دغه شمېرې بيا په هغو سيمو کې ٤٣ سلنه ته رسيږي، چې لږ نا امنه دي. پر دې سربېره له ډېر شخړو او جنجالونو سره مخ کېدل، نا سمې تګلارې او ستراتېژۍ او محدوده انساني پانګونه- د ماشومانو لپاره د کافي تعذيې او ښوونې چارو چمتو کول په لوړه کچه هغه څه دي، چې د ټولنې بېوزله او ناداره قشر ورسره لاس او ګرېوان دى.

سه چالش بزرگ برای آیندۀ افغانستان: افزایش فقر، نا امنی و رشد اقتصادى کند

Silvia Redaelli's picture
Also available in: English | پښتو

هفتۀ گذشته، یک تانکر در جمعی از هزاران وسایل نقلیه در ترافیک سنگین شهر کابل، با گذشتن از بسیاری  ساختمان های دولتی و سفارتخانه ها، به چهارراهی زنبق رسید. با ایستادن در یکی از نقاط مزدحم شهر، ١٥٠٠ کیلوگرام مواد منفجرۀ جابجا شده در آن تانکر منفجر گردید. ساعت ٨:٢٢ صبح بود؛ زمانیکه بسیاری از مردم به طرف وظایف شان و بسیاری از اطفال به طرف مکتب روان بودند. این انفجار، جان ١٥٠ شهروند کابل را گرفت. این یکی از هزاران واقعات است که زندگی افغانها از آن متاثر شده است.

حوادث امنیتی، در طول سالیان اخیر، به طور دومدار در حال افزایش بوده و دامنه ان تقریباً تمام افغانستان را در بر میگیرد. شمار واقعات امنیتی و تلفات غیرنظامیان در ٢٠١٦ ريکارد شکنی نموده است. نظر به آمار شاخص جهانی صلح در سال ٢٠١٦، افغانستان چهارمین کشور نا امن بعد از سوریه، سودان جنوبی و عراق، در جهان محسوب میشود. تشدید و  گسترش جغرافیای نا امنی ها، شمار بیجاشدگان داخلی را بالا برده است. نظر به اطلاعات اخیر سازمان ملل متحد، تنها درسال ٢٠١٦ بیش از ٦٧٠٠٠٠ تن در داخل افغانستان از خانه های شان بیجا شده اند.

گزارش اخیر بانک جهانی تحت نام "وضعیت فقر در افغانستان: پیشرفتها در معرض خطر" نشان میدهد که بدون شک خشونت و نا امنی خطرات زیاد را به صلح و رفاه مردم افغانستان وارد میکند. نظر به معلومات سروی وضعیت اجتماعی افغانها، تخمیناً، ١٧ فیصد خانواده های افغان، در سالهای ٢٠١٣ – ٢٠١٤، پانزده فیصد بالاتر از سالهای ٢٠١١ – ٢٠١٢ در معرض حوادث امنیتی قرار گرفته اند. این با واقعۀ اصلی که توسط بخش امنیتی سازمان ملل متحد گزارش داده شده بود، مشابهت زیاد دارد.

Three threats to Afghanistan’s future: Rising poverty, insecurity, sluggish growth

Silvia Redaelli's picture
Also available in: دری | پښتو

Last week, a tanker truck, one of many roaming the streets of Kabul, navigated through bumper-to-bumper traffic, going past government buildings and embassies, to Zanbaq Square. When stopped at a checkpoint, more than 1,500 kg of explosives that had been hidden in the tank were detonated. It was 8:22 am and many Afghans were on their way to work and children were going to school. The explosion killed 150 commuters and bystanders, and injured hundreds more. This is just one of many incidents that affects Afghans’ lives and livelihoods.

Conflict has constantly increased over the past years, spreading to most of Afghanistan, with the number of security incidents and civilian casualties breaking records in 2016. According to the Global Peace Index, Afghanistan was the fourth least peaceful country on earth in 2016, after Syria, South Sudan, and Iraq. The intensification and the geographical reach of conflict has increased the number of people internally displaced. According to the latest United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) data, over 670,000 people were internally displaced in 2016 alone.

Against this backdrop, our recent World Bank report, the “Afghanistan Poverty Status Update: Progress at Risk”, shows that not surprisingly violence and insecurity pose increasing risks to the welfare of Afghan households. Approximately 17 percent of households reported exposure to security-related shocks in 2013–14, up from 15 percent in 2011–12 according to data from the Afghanistan Living Conditions Survey (ALCS)[1]. This is largely in line with the actual incidence of conflict incidents as reported by the United Nations Department of Safety and Security (UNDSS).

Leveling the Playing Field - Equal Opportunity and Inclusion in Nepal

SaileshTiwari's picture
“I started working from when I was 8. When father could not send me to school, I decided to do something to support my family financially. Today, I am working as a cook in this tea shop.” - Puran Saud, Achham (Photo Credit – Stories of Nepal)

Goma is a girl, born in rural Kalikot. Her parents are illiterate, belong to the Dalit community and are in the bottom 20 percent of Nepal’s wealth distribution. Champa is also a girl born to a household very similar to Goma’s, but her parents are from a village in Siraha. Avidit is a boy born to an upper caste household in urban Kathmandu. Both his parents have a university education and come from affluent backgrounds.

In a society where opportunities are equally available for children of all socio-economic backgrounds, Goma, Avidit and Champa would all have equal odds of becoming doctors, or engineers or successful entrepreneurs. But in Nepal, the life trajectory of these children begins to diverge very early in life.

Demystifying Economic Inequality in Nepal

SaileshTiwari's picture
Moving Up the Ladder banner
Moving Up the Ladder photo
“I didn’t go to school and I don’t have the money to run a bigger business. So I do what I know. Hardship is our way of life.” - Sangmu Bhote Gangdokpa, Sankhuwasabha (Photo Credit – Stories of Nepal)

In 2003, Meiko Nishimizu, the World Bank Vice President for South Asia at the time, referred to Kathmandu as “an island of prosperity in a sea of poverty that is Nepal”.  This was a time when the country was besieged with a violent conflict, with the state struggling to keep control of urban areas while rebels and security forces locked horns in the countryside. Her invocation of Martin Luther King Jr’s quote that “injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere” must have resonated deeply with those in Kathmandu, especially those that may have associated inequality with the rise of the conflict.

Thirteen years on, as we think about Nepal’s progress on poverty reduction since then, it is appropriate to reflect on inequality and how it has evolved during this period. Has every Nepali benefitted from the living standards improvements that have been realized in the country? Or have some been left behind?

Rural jobs allow people to escape poverty; urban jobs are a ticket to the middle class

Yue Li's picture
South Asia is sometimes known as the land of extremes with opulence surrounded by poverty.

How much social mobility is there in South Asia? The intuitive answer is: very little. South Asia is home to the biggest number of poor in the world and key development outcomes – from child mortality to malnutrition – suggest that poverty is entrenched. Absence of mobility is arguably what defines the caste system, in which occupations are essentially set for individuals at birth. Not surprisingly, the prospects for people from disadvantaged backgrounds to prosper are believed to be gloomier in this part of the world.

And yet, our analysis in Addressing Inequality in South Asia, reveals that economic and occupational mobility has become substantial in the region in recent decades. In fact, it could even be comparable to that of very dynamic societies such as the United States and Vietnam. The analysis also suggests that cities support greater mobility than rural areas, and that wage employment – both formal and informal – is one of its main drivers. 

​When splitting the population into three groups—poor, vulnerable, and middle class—upward mobility within the same generation was considerable for both the poor and the vulnerable. In both Bangladesh and India, a considerable fraction of households moved above the poverty line between 2005 and 2010. Meanwhile, a sizable proportion of the poor and the vulnerable moved into the middle class. In India, households from Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes – considered together – experienced upward mobility comparable to that of the rest of the population.  

Did You Kill Somebody Tonight?

Eliana Cardoso's picture

“Did you kill somebody tonight?” Durga Pokkherel asks the police officer while in police custody in Nepal, after hearing terrified screams. As told in her memoir, Shadow over Shangri-la, the police officer replies: “You always imagine something big. He is not killed. As a routine treatment he was enclosed in a sack and beaten. But he would not speak a word, so some other police friends put a couple pins in his fingers. That is all.”

The dialogue took place in late 1990s, when both Maoists and the state committed human rights abuses in Nepal, a country on the top of the world, where caste, ethnicity, gender status and regional disparities have largely determined inequality. Social exclusion fostered state fragility, a Maoist rebellion, and a civil war that lasted for ten years (1996-2006).

After an unpopular royal coup in February 2005, the international community put pressure on the government to accept international monitoring under the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. The monitoring created the space for peaceful political protest and, in April 2006, the King restored Parliament. Civil war came to an end with elections and the declaration of the Federal Republic of Nepal in May 2008.