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Poverty

Better data sharing to improve the lives of Afghan refugees

Shubham Chaudhuri's picture
Also available in: دری | پښتو
A bus with returnees from Pakistan at the IOM Screening center on Turkham border in Nangarhar province
A bus with returnees from Pakistan at the IOM Screening center on Turkham border in Nangarhar province. Photo Credit: IOM Afghanistan / E. Schwoerer

Four decades of conflict, violence and uncertainty has made Afghans the world’s largest protracted refugee population and among the largest group of returnees in the past few decades. Each year as many as 100,000s Afghans are on the move.

Since 2002, some 5.8 million Afghan refugees and several million more undocumented Afghans have returned to Afghanistan. More than two million of these refugees and undocumented returnees have returned since 2015. Recent surges in returns such as the 2016 spike of over 600,000 returnees from Pakistan were recorded in just six months.
 
Most returnees relocate to urban and peri-urban areas where they find limited job opportunities and inadequate access to essential services, thus jeopardizing their reintegration prospects and fueling secondary displacement. Therefore, it is imperative that joint initiatives between international organizations and Afghan government ministries help support both returnees and the host communities in which they relocate.
 
To that end, the World Bank and the International Organization for Migration (IOM) today signed a data sharing agreement (DSA), which formalizes an existing partnership between the two organizations in Afghanistan.

تشریک بهتر معلومات میتواند وضعیت زندگی افغان های عودت کننده را بهبود بخشد

Shubham Chaudhuri's picture
Also available in: English | پښتو
A bus with returnees from Pakistan at the IOM Screening center on Turkham border in Nangarhar province
یک موتر بس حامل عودت کنندگان افغان از پاکستان در یکی  از مراکز سازمان بین المللی مهاجرت حین ارزیابی وضیعت آنها در مرز تورخم، ولایت ننگرهار. عکس از  ایوا سوریر ، سازمان بین المللی مهاجرت

چهار دهه جنگ، خشونت، ناامنی، اوضاع شکننده یی سیاسی، اجتماعی و اقتصادی افغانستان را به بزرگترین نفوس بیجا شدگان مبدل ساخته است. تخمین میشود که هرسال بیشتر از۱۰۰۰۰۰ افغان در حرکت از یکجا به جای دیگر میباشد.

از سال ۲۰۰۲ به این سو، حدود ۵،۸ میلیون پناهجوی افغان و چندین میلیون افغان ‌دیگر که اسناد و مدارک پناهجوی بودند، به افغانستان عودت نموده اند. این در حالیست که از سال ۲۰۱۵ به این سو بیشتر از ۲ میلیون پناهنده و مهاجر بدون  اسناد دوباره به کشور عودت نموده اند.

موج تازۀ برگشت مهاجرین از پاکستان درسال ۲۰۱۶ بخش مهم این روند را تشکیل میداد؛ چنانچه که در این جریان بیشتر از ۶۰۰۰۰۰ هزار عودت کننده صرف در ظرف شش ماه نخست این سال ثبت شده بودند. ارقام و معلومات موجود نشان میدهد که اکثر عودت کنندگان در محلات شهری و اطراف شهرها مسکن گزین میگردند زیرا انها نمیخواهند با مشکلات و محدودیت های فرصت های کاری، دسترسی به خدمات اساسی، و زیرساخت های اندک مواجه شوند. باور اینست که اگر آنان در این محلات جابجا نشوند ممکن مشکلات اساکان شان در مناطق دیگر مانع موفقیت ادغام مجدد شان شده و امکان دارد سبب بیجا شدن دوباره آنها گردد.

حمایت از عودت کننده گان و محلات میزبان که برگشت کننده گان در آن مناطق استقرار مجدد میابند، نیازمند ایجاد ابتکار و همکاریهای مشترک بیشتر میان موسسات بین المللی و وزارت های ذیربط حکومتی میباشد.

در همین راستا،  امروز بانک جهانی و سازمان بین المللی مهاجرت یک توافقنامۀ تشریک معلومات (DSA) را امضاء نمودند که مطابق آن همکاری های موجود میان این دو نهاد تقویت میابد.

د غوره معلوماتو شریکول کولی شي د راستنېدونکو افغانانو ژوند ښه کړي

Shubham Chaudhuri's picture
Also available in: English | دری
A bus with returnees from Pakistan at the IOM Screening center on Turkham border in Nangarhar province
له پاکستان څخه یو بس چې افغان کډوال په کې لیږدول کیدل او په تورخم پوله کې  د کډوالو نړیوال سازمان په یوه مرکز کې د هغوی وضعیت څیړنې پرمهال. انځور له ایوا سوریر/ د کډوالۍ نړیوال سازمان

په افغانستان کې څلور لسیزې جګړې، تاوتریخوالي، ناامنۍ، د افغانستان بد سیاسي، اقتصادي او ټولنیز وضعیت له امله زیاتره کسان ګډوال شوي دي. داسې اټکل کېږي چې هر کال له ۱۰۰۰۰۰ ډېر افغانان له یو سیمې څخه بلې سیمې ته کډه کوي.

 له ۲۰۰۲ کال راهیسې شاوخوا ۵،۸ ميلیون افغان پناه غوښتونکي او څو ميلیونه هغه افغانان چې د پناه غوښتونکو اسناد او مدرکونه لري بېرته افغانستان ته راستانه شوي دي. دا په داسې حال کې ده چې له ۲۰۱۵ کال راهیسې له ۲ ميلیونه ډېر هغه افغان پناه غوښتونکي او کډوال چې اسناد یې نه لرل بېرته هېواد ته راستانه شوي دي.

له پاکستان څخه په ۲۰۱۶ کال کې د کډوالو بېرته راستنېدل د دغه بهیر مهمه برخه جوړوي؛ په دغه بهیر کې یوازې د روان کال په لومړیو شپږو میاشتو کې له ۶۰۰۰۰۰ ډېر راستنېدونکي ثبت شوي و. دغه شمېرې ښيي چې ډېری راستنېدونکي په ښاري او اطرافي سیمو کې ځای پر ځای کېږي، ځکه دوی نه غواړي چې د بېکارۍ له ستونزو، اساسي خدمتونو ته د لاس رسي له لږو ستونزو سره مخ شي. باورکېږي، چې که دوی په دې سیمو کې ځای پر ځای نه شي ممکن د استوګنې په نورو سیمو کې ستونزې د دوی د راټولېدو مخه ونیسي او د بیا بېځایه کېدو لامل یې شي.

له راستنېدونکو او هغه سیمو څخه ملاتړ، چې راستنېدونکي په کې مېشت کېږي، د اړونده حکومتي وزارتونو او نړیوالو موسسو تر منځ ډېرو نوښتونو او همکاریو ته اړتیا لري. په همدې خاطر نن نړیوال بانک او د کډوالو نړیوال سازمان ( DSA ) د شریکو معلوماتو یو هوکړه لیک لاسلیک کړ.

How to boost female employment in South Asia

Martin Rama's picture
What's driving female employment in South Asia to decrease


South Asia is booming. In 2018, GDP growth for the region as a whole is expected to accelerate to 6.9 percent, making it the fastest growing region in the world. However, fast GDP growth has not translated into fast employment growth. In fact, employment rates have declined across the region, with women accounting for most of this decline.

Between 2005 and 2015, female employment rates declined by 5 percent per year in India, 3 percent per year in Bhutan, and 1 percent per year in Sri Lanka. While it is not surprising for female employment rates to decline with economic growth and then increase, in what is commonly known as the U-shaped female labor force function (a term coined by Claudia Goldin in 1995), the trends observed in South Asia stand out. Not only has female employment declined much more than could have been anticipated, it is likely to decline further as countries such as India continue to grow and urbanize.

The unusual trend for female employment rates in South Asia is clear from Figure 1. While male employment rates in South Asia are in line with those of other countries at the same income level, female employment rates are well below.
From the South Asia Economic Focus
Source: South Asia Economic Focus (Spring 2018).

If women are choosing to exit the labor force as family incomes rise, should policymakers worry? There are at least three reasons why the drop in female employment rates may have important social costs. First, household choices may not necessarily match women’s preferences. Those preferences reflect the influence of ideas and norms about what is women’s work and men’s work as well as other gendered notions such as the idea that women should take care of the children and housework. Second, when women control a greater share of household incomes, children are healthier and do better in school. Third, when women work for pay, they have a greater voice in their households, in their communities, and in society. The economic gains from women participating equally in the labor market are sizable: A recent study estimated that the overall gain in GDP to South Asia from closing gender gaps in employment and entrepreneurship would be close to 25 percent.

How data can benefit Nepal

Ravi Kumar's picture

Thirty years ago, almost everyone in Nepal —except for a few professionals and business people—would have been classified as poor by any reasonable international standard.

In 2010, by contrast, 15 percent of Nepalis were considered poor.

Without a doubt, Nepal has made progress.

Now the 761 newly formed—local, provincial, and federal—governments in Nepal aim to provide all Nepalis access to essential public services, eliminate poverty, reduce gender and ethnic inequalities, and ensure environmental sustainability

The hope is that Nepal will reach middle-income status by 2030.

But tracking and monitoring progress against the goals articulated in Nepal’s development vision as well as the global Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) impose significant demands on the country.

Unfortunately, the absence of disaggregated data by geography, sex, age, social groups and sub-national level, and more poses an enormous challenge for all levels of governments to properly plan and budget.

As such, Nepal needs to urgently invest in its data and statistics capacity.

Data is the currency for decision making and helps us understand what works and what doesn’t.

For instance, let’s consider a province in Nepal that is keen to improve learning for its public schools’ students.

Without data on students, their gender, age, academic performance, or the number of schools and teachers, the provincial government cannot elaborate an informed plan for its students.

But were policymakers able to access timely and sufficient data, they could decide whether more teachers or more schools are needed. Without data, decisions are just like shooting in the dark and hoping for the best.   

#IndiaWeWant Photo Contest: Shortlisted Entries

Roli Mahajan's picture

The World Bank in India ran the #IndiaWeWant photo competition through our Facebook and Twitter channels, where we invited participants to share photographs capturing the key development priority for India. The #IndiaWeWant photo competition was open for a month and we have received many compelling entries. 

Now it is time for us to choose our winners.

We asked a jury of three members comprising professional and development photographers -- Michael Foley, Anirban Dutta, Anupam Joshi-- to come together and do the honours.

Here are the #IndiaWeWant entries that have made it to the longlist. They will be deliberating over these soon and selecting the WINNER as well as the 9 others, as stated in the rules.

Let us know what you think in the comments section below and if one of your entries has been selected then please do send us an email ([email protected]) with the actual photograph and your details (Name, Phone Number).
 

Banking on women’s empowerment for a sustainable and stronger India 
The global efforts for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals could be accelerated by synergising women's empowerment with environmental conservation. 
Since past 32 years, Barli Development Institute for Rural Women (BDIRW) has been empowering rural and tribal women through organising free 6-monthly residential training program covering literacy, organic-farming, solar-cooking, health and tailoring&cutting. More than 8200 women have been empowered, who are changing the sustainable development horizons of their families and tribal communities (www.barli.org#IndiaWeWant 
In Picture: The women-trainees from Alirajpur (Dhauli, Rita, Angita, Karmi) planting trees in BDIRW campus (Indore, India) 
Photo credit: Yogesh Jadhav
 
For India, developing priority should be the education of girls in rural areas. They enrolled in school in beginning but they are not able to make it till the end, either they are forced to marry at the age of 10 or 13. In future, they are illiterate mothers who cannot read and write properly and also they become a victim of domestic violence as they are unaware about their rights. #IndiaWeWant
Photo Credit: Neha Rawat
To me, development is more than improvement in nation's GDP. It must be conceived as a multidimensional process, involving changes in the entire spectrum through which human capabilities are expanded, like education, healthcare, social participation or the freedom to make choices. The primary objective of development is to benefit people and improve the quality of life, which can only be achieved if all marginalised and excluded groups are equal stakeholders in the process alongwith active involvement in the planning, execution and monitoring of development programs.
The couple below selling lights which are battery operated but thankfully their smiles are not.#IndiaWeWant
Photo Credit: Maneka Naren Yadav‎

Boosting entrepreneurship in rural Afghanistan

Miki Terasawa's picture
Also available in: دری | پښتو
The Afghanistan Rural Enterprise Development Project has linked rural producers, inlcuding saffron farmers with markets to create businesses and provide employment opportunities to many Afghan women and men.
The Afghanistan Rural Enterprise Development Project has linked rural producers, including saffron farmers with markets to create businesses and provide employment opportunities to many Afghan women and men. Photo Credit: AREDP/ World Bank.

Meet Mohammad Naim, a saffron farmer in Afghanistan’s Herat province.  In 2013, Naim launched a new business, the Taban Enterprise Group after he and his partners received training and attended agriculture fairs nationwide.

Taban cultivates, processes, and markets saffron, and since its founding, it has steadily improved the quality of its saffron and expanded operations. Today, the company employs 120 women annually for seasonal work to harvest and process the valuable crop.
 
This business success story started with small savings pooled together by rural men and women like Naim.
 
Since 2010, the Afghanistan Rural Enterprise Development Project (AREDP) has linked rural producers with markets and helped villagers form savings and credit groups to create businesses or expand their small enterprises.

تقویت تشبثات خصوصی و ایجاد فرصت های کار در روستاهای افغانستان

Miki Terasawa's picture
Also available in: English | پښتو
The Afghanistan Rural Enterprise Development Project has linked rural producers, inlcuding saffron farmers with markets to create businesses and provide employment opportunities to many Afghan women and men.
پروژه انکشاف صنایع روستایی افغانستان  ازتولید کنندگان روستایی، به خصوص کسانیکه در عرصه تولید زعفران مشغول کاراند حمایت مینماید، تا نه تنها محصولات شانرا به بازار ها عرضه نمایند، بلکه خود قادر به ایجاد تشبثات و تجارت های کوچک گردند وزمینه های اشتغال زایی بیشتر را برای زنان و مردان فراهم نمایند. عکس: پروژه انکشاف صنایع روستایی افغانستان/ بانک جهانی

با نعیم یکتن از متشبثین محلی در ولایت هرات، که  در عرصه تولید زعفران مصروف کار است، آشنا شوید. در سال ۲۰۱۳ میلادی، نعیم و چند تن از شرکای او پس از اشتراک در یک سلسله برنامه های آموزشی در بخش زراعت و همچنان اشتراک در چندین نمایشگاه داخلی، تصمیم گرفتند یک شرکت تجارتی را بنام تابان تاسیس نمایند. شرکت متذکره که در بخش های کشت، پروسس و فروش محصول زعفران فعالیت را آغاز نمود، در مدت کم توانست با بهبود کیفیت تولید زعفران و گسترش فعالیت های تجارتی فراتر از مرز های افغانستان شهرت کسب نماید. بطور اوسط سالانه ۱۲۰ زن در این شرکت به منظور انجام کار های فصلی زعفران استخدام گردیده، تا در عرصه جمع آوری حاصلات و پروسس این نبات ارزشمند کار نمایند.
 
موفقیت این سرمایه گذاری با سهمگیری و اختصاص هزینه های کوچک پس انداز و قرضه از سوی چند زن و مرد روستایی مانند نعیم آغاز گردیده است.
 
از سال ۲۰۱۰ بدینسو پروژه انکشاف صنابع روستایی افغانستان تولید کنندگان روستایی را با بازار ها وصل ساخته و همزمان با آن از طریق گروپ های پس انداز و گروپ های قرضه قریه، روستاییان را کمک نموده، تا برایشان تجارت های کوچک ایجاد نموده و یا تشبثات کوچک شان را توسعه دهند.

د افغانستان په کلیوالو سیمو کې د خصوصی تشبثاتو او د کارموندنی د فرصتونو پیاوړتیا

Miki Terasawa's picture
Also available in: English | دری
The Afghanistan Rural Enterprise Development Project has linked rural producers, inlcuding saffron farmers with markets to create businesses and provide employment opportunities to many Afghan women and men.
د افغانستان د کلیوالي صنایعو د پراختیا پروژه له ټولو کلیوالو تولید کوونکو، بالخصوص له هغو بزګرانو څخه چې د زعفرانو د کښټ او پروسس په برخه کې کار کوي، مالي  او تخنیکي ملاتړ برابروي. په دې توګه نه یوازې، چې بزګران به وتوانیږي څو خپل محصولات بازارونو ته عرضه کړي، بلکه خپله به کوچني تجارتونه او تشبثات پرانیزي او د ښځو او نارینه وو لپاره به د کارموندنې فرصتونه برابر شي. انځور: د افغانستان د کلیوالي صنایعو د پراختیا پروژه/ نړیوال بانک

د زعفرانو د کښت چارو کې د هرات ولایت د یوه بریالي متشبث نعیم سره وپیژنئ. په ۲۰۱۳ کال کې نعیم او څو نورو شریکانو یې وروسته له دې چې د کرني په څو ښونیزو برنامو، او کورنیو نندارتونونو کې ګډون وکړ نو د تابان په نامه د یوه سوداګریز شرکت په جوړولو یې پیل وکړ. نوموړی شرکت چې د زعفرانو د کښت، پروسس او خرڅلاو په برخه کې فعالیت کوي، په ډیر کم وخت کې وتوانید د زعفرانو د کیفیت په لوړولو سره  د خپل سوداګریز فعالیتونو شهرت د افغانستان تر پولو واړوي. اوس مهال په منځنۍ توګه دغه شرکت په کال کې ۱۲۰ ښخې د زعفرانو د فصلی چارو لپاره ګوماري، تر څو د دغه ارزښتناک بوټي  د حاصلاتو د راټولولو او پروسس چارې پر مخ بوزي.
 
د دغه پانګه اچونې د بریالیتوب کیسه د سپما او پورونو لپاره د کوچنیو نغدي ونډه اخیستنو  په وسیله د نعیم په شان دڅو نارینه وو او ښخو له خوا پیل شوه.
 
د ۲۰۱۰ کال نه را پدیخوا د افغانستان د کلیوالي صنایعو د پراختیا پروژې، کلیوال تولید کوونکي له بازار سره وصل کړل او همدارنګه د کلي سپما او پورونو د ګروپونو په واسطه یې  له کليوالي خلکو سره مرسته وکړه تر څو ورته کوچني تجارتونه جوړ او کوچني تشبثاتو ته وده ورکړي.

A Pakistani daughter and her destiny

Sameera Al Tuwaijri's picture



Koshi is 4 days old. She was born in a small village near Hyderabad (Sindh, Pakistan) and is one of four siblings – all girls, all under the age of 10. Her parents were hoping that this time it would be a boy, but perhaps better luck next time? Her mother is worried that if she doesn’t give birth to a boy, she will be stigmatized. Family planning is out of the question – not that she and her husband have even discussed this. She worries about her girls’ well-being too. They are underweight and get sick a lot. She wants them to grow up healthy and get an education. Koshi’s father is worried about them too. He is a tenant farmer with a meager income. He already struggles to provide the basic necessities – food, clothing, shelter. Even if they marry young, how will he arrange their dowries? Of course this is only if Koshi and her sisters live long enough.

Koshi’s chances of survival are slim. In Pakistan, 1 in 20 newborns die within the first month of their birth.[i] By age 5, 79 of every 1000 children born die. There is an 11 percent chance that they will not survive beyond age 14 years.[ii] The situation in Sindh is worse than the national average, and the risk of deaths is higher in its rural areas where access to healthcare and other social services is more limited. Investing in the health and well-being of the population, especially the youth is pivotal for Sindh’s economic growth and development.

Having a primary health center near the village and local lady health workers for example will improve the girls’ chances of access to healthcare and childhood immunization – necessary for protection against diseases such as measles, polio, and diphtheria that still take a heavy toll on children’s lives. It also improves the mother’s access to skilled birth attendance. Skilled attendance at birth reduces newborn deaths by 43 percent[iii] and maternal deaths by 66.67 percent.[iv]

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