. More than two million of these refugees and undocumented returnees have returned since 2015. Recent surges in returns such as the 2016 spike of over 600,000 returnees from Pakistan were recorded in just six months.
Most returnees relocate to urban and peri-urban areas where they find limited job opportunities and inadequate access to essential services, thus jeopardizing their reintegration prospects and fueling secondary displacement. Therefore, .
To that end, the World Bank and the International Organization for Migration (IOM) today signed a data sharing agreement (DSA), which formalizes an existing partnership between the two organizations in Afghanistan.
چهار دهه جنگ، خشونت، ناامنی، اوضاع شکننده یی سیاسی، اجتماعی و اقتصادی افغانستان را به بزرگترین نفوس بیجا شدگان مبدل ساخته است.
از سال ۲۰۰۲ به این سو، حدود ۵،۸ میلیون پناهجوی افغان و چندین میلیون افغان دیگر که اسناد و مدارک پناهجوی بودند، به افغانستان عودت نموده اند. این در حالیست که از سال ۲۰۱۵ به این سو بیشتر از ۲ میلیون پناهنده و مهاجر بدون اسناد دوباره به کشور عودت نموده اند.
موج تازۀ برگشت مهاجرین از پاکستان درسال ۲۰۱۶ بخش مهم این روند را تشکیل میداد؛ چنانچه که در این جریان بیشتر از ۶۰۰۰۰۰ هزار عودت کننده صرف در ظرف شش ماه نخست این سال ثبت شده بودند. زیرا انها نمیخواهند با مشکلات و محدودیت های فرصت های کاری، دسترسی به خدمات اساسی، و زیرساخت های اندک مواجه شوند. باور اینست که اگر آنان در این محلات جابجا نشوند ممکن مشکلات اساکان شان در مناطق دیگر مانع موفقیت ادغام مجدد شان شده و امکان دارد سبب بیجا شدن دوباره آنها گردد.
در همین راستا، امروز بانک جهانی و سازمان بین المللی مهاجرت یک توافقنامۀ تشریک معلومات (DSA) را امضاء نمودند که مطابق آن همکاری های موجود میان این دو نهاد تقویت میابد.
په افغانستان کې څلور لسیزې جګړې، تاوتریخوالي، ناامنۍ، د افغانستان بد سیاسي، اقتصادي او ټولنیز وضعیت له امله زیاتره کسان ګډوال شوي دي.
. دا په داسې حال کې ده چې .
له پاکستان څخه په ۲۰۱۶ کال کې د کډوالو بېرته راستنېدل د دغه بهیر مهمه برخه جوړوي؛ په دغه بهیر کې یوازې د روان کال په لومړیو شپږو میاشتو کې له ۶۰۰۰۰۰ ډېر راستنېدونکي ثبت شوي و. دغه شمېرې ښيي چې ډېری راستنېدونکي په ښاري او اطرافي سیمو کې ځای پر ځای کېږي، ځکه دوی نه غواړي چې د بېکارۍ له ستونزو، اساسي خدمتونو ته د لاس رسي له لږو ستونزو سره مخ شي. باورکېږي، چې که دوی په دې سیمو کې ځای پر ځای نه شي ممکن د استوګنې په نورو سیمو کې ستونزې د دوی د راټولېدو مخه ونیسي او د بیا بېځایه کېدو لامل یې شي.
له راستنېدونکو او هغه سیمو څخه ملاتړ، چې راستنېدونکي په کې مېشت کېږي، د اړونده حکومتي وزارتونو او نړیوالو موسسو تر منځ ډېرو نوښتونو او همکاریو ته اړتیا لري. په همدې خاطر نن نړیوال بانک او د کډوالو نړیوال سازمان ( DSA ) د شریکو معلوماتو یو هوکړه لیک لاسلیک کړ.
“The main driver of growth in Bhutan continues to be the hydropower sector, but electricity generation does not create job,” said a senior government officials attending the presentation of The World Bank’s South Asia Focus on Jobless Growth on June 28th in Thimphu. The report was presented by Martin Rama, World Bank South Asia Region Chief Economist and was attended by senior government officials, parliamentarians and development partners. The presentation alongside the launch of Bhutan Development Update was a great opportunity for the policy makers to better understand and synthesize Bhutan and the South Asia region’s development opportunities.
In the case of Bhutan, it seems clear that growth alone will not allow it to attain higher employment rates as enjoyed by some other developing countries.
"More than 1.8 million young people will reach working age every month in South Asia through 2025 and the good news is that economic growth is creating jobs in the region,” said Martin Rama,. “But providing opportunities to these young entrants while attracting more women into the labor market will require generating even more jobs for every point of economic growth.”
The report informs that the fall in employment rates has been much faster in the region particularly in India, Bhutan and Sri Lanka and especially for women, risking foregoing the demographic dividend. While it is evident that the number of working age people is increasing, the proporation who are at work has declined owing to prioritization of the households to education, health and other commitments with increasing level of income.
South Asia is booming. In 2018, GDP growth for the region as a whole is expected to accelerate to 6.9 percent, making it the fastest growing region in the world. However, fast GDP growth has not translated into fast employment growth. In fact, employment rates have declined across the region, with women accounting for most of this decline.
The unusual trend for female employment rates in South Asia is clear from Figure 1. While male employment rates in South Asia are in line with those of other countries at the same income level, female employment rates are well below.
If women are choosing to exit the labor force as family incomes rise, should policymakers worry? There are at least three reasons why the drop in female employment rates may have important social costs. First, household choices may not necessarily match women’s preferences. Those preferences reflect the influence of ideas and norms about what is women’s work and men’s work as well as other gendered notions such as the idea that women should take care of the children and housework. Second, when women control a greater share of household incomes, children are healthier and do better in school. Third, when women work for pay, they have a greater voice in their households, in their communities, and in society. The economic gains from women participating equally in the labor market are sizable: A recent study estimated that the overall gain in GDP to South Asia from closing gender gaps in employment and entrepreneurship would be close to 25 percent.
In 2010, by contrast, 15 percent of Nepalis were considered poor.
Without a doubt, Nepal has made progress.
Now the 761 newly formed—local, provincial, and federal—governments in Nepal aim to provide all Nepalis access to essential public services, eliminate poverty, reduce gender and ethnic inequalities, and ensure environmental sustainability
But tracking and monitoring progress against the goals articulated in Nepal’s development vision as well as the global Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) impose significant demands on the country.
Unfortunately, the absence of disaggregated data by geography, sex, age, social groups and sub-national level, and more poses an enormous challenge for all levels of governments to properly plan and budget.
As such, Nepal needs to urgently invest in its data and statistics capacity.
For instance, let’s consider a province in Nepal that is keen to improve learning for its public schools’ students.
Without data on students, their gender, age, academic performance, or the number of schools and teachers, the provincial government cannot elaborate an informed plan for its students.
But were policymakers able to access timely and sufficient data, they could decide whether more teachers or more schools are needed. Without data, decisions are just like shooting in the dark and hoping for the best.
The World Bank in India ran the #IndiaWeWant photo competition through our Facebook and Twitter channels, where we invited participants to share photographs capturing the key development priority for India. The #IndiaWeWant photo competition was open for a month and we have received many compelling entries.
We asked a jury of three members comprising professional and development photographers -- Michael Foley, Anirban Dutta, Anupam Joshi-- to come together and do the honours.
They will be deliberating over these soon and selecting the WINNER as well as the 9 others, as stated in the rules.
Let us know what you think in the comments section below and if one of your entries has been selected then please do send us an email ([email protected]) with the actual photograph and your details (Name, Phone Number).
In Sri Lanka, as in the rest of South Asia, improving agricultural production has long been a priority to achieve food security.
But growing more crops has hardly lessened the plight of malnutrition.
And children and the poorest are particularly at risk.
And more than half of the world’s 52 million children identified as wasted—or too thin for their height—live in South Asia.
Moderate-to-severe wasting rates ranged from 2 percent in Bhutan in 2015 to 21 percent in India in 2015–16, with rates above 10 percent for most countries in the region.
And sadly, much remains to be done to ensure children across South Asia can access the nutritious foods they need to live healthy lives.
Our recent research suggests that attitudes related to women’s roles at home and in the public space are in flux and moving towards greater gender equality, at least in aspirations.
In recent focus group discussions with women conducted by the Pakistan Gender Platform in Pakistan’s four provincial capitals, most women voiced a preference to work outside the home in mixed gender settings, regardless of age, occupation or income levels, and despite the many barriers involved: from lack of safe public transport to sexual harassment at work. Yet, their choices are still limited by patriarchal norms: as one young FGD participant who expressed her desire to work noted, “We may become economically independent but will always be socially dependent.”
This tension between the changing aspirations of young Pakistanis and the barriers they face in realizing them came alive in a recent online poll that we launched as part of the Country Office’s flagship [email protected] initiative. Despite some limitations stemming from its sample and mode of delivery, the poll provides an eye-opening glimpse into the urban youth’s shifting aspirations and attitudes on gender norms.
Asha, from Udaipur District in Rajasthan, used to sell vegetables in a nearby town. Over time, this traditional village woman observed that flowers were in demand near the town’s main temple for use as ritual offerings. With encouragement from Manjula, a micro enterprise consultant under the Bank’s Rajasthan Rural Livelihoods Project (RRLP), Asha began cultivating marigolds on part of her family farm where millets had always been grown. She has devoted a larger area of her farm to floriculture, and started a nursery to grow flower saplings to sell to other aspiring marigold farmers. Asha is now looking to expand her sapling nursery by renting more land, for which she is seeking a bank loan.
Outside Kathmandu in Nepal, Ambika Ranamgar used to work for building contractors, cutting marble and laying tiles in houses under construction. Then she struck out on her own. With encouragement and support from a community mobilizer under the Nepal Poverty Alleviation Fund (NPAF), Ambika took a loan of Rs. 80,000 ($740) to buy her own equipment, including a marble-cutting machine and a generator to power the machines during the city’s frequent power cuts. She then scouted for work visiting local hardware stores, and gradually began to get more clients. Ambika’s income has now more than doubled from her daily wage of Rs. 600 to reach between Rs. 1,000 to 1,500 rupees per day. She is now focused on getting more business and managing her supplies and workers. At the time we visited her, Ambika had employed five workers, including her husband, and was busy laying the flooring for two houses.