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Social Development

ම‍ෙය ශ්‍රී ලාංකික කාන්තාවට “දියුණුව පි‍ණිස වැඩ කිරීමට“ කාලයයි.

Idah Z. Pswarayi-Riddihough's picture
Also available in: English | தமிழ்
 
Starting today, March 8, we at the World Bank are embarking on a year-long effort to rally the government, our development partners, the private sector and the public to see how we can really deliver results for Sri Lanka’s women.
මාර්තු 8වන දින, එනම් අද දින පටන් ලෝක බැංකු වේ අප සැම රජය, අපගේ සංවර්ධන හවුල්කරුවන්, පුද්ගලික අංශය සහ මහජනතාව හා එක්ව, වසරක් මුළුල්ලේ කර්තව්‍යයන් ප‍ෙළ ගස්වමින් ශ්‍රී ලාංකීය කාන්තාව වෙත සැබැවින්ම ප්‍ර‍තිඵල හිමිකර ද‍ෙන්නේ ක‍ෙසේ දැයි විමසා බලන්න‍ෙමු.  

ජාත්‍යන්තර කාන්තා දිනය සෑම කලකම මාගේ දින දසුන‍ෙහි සුවිශේෂී සලකුණකි. ම‍ෙවර එහි තේමාව වන ‘#දියුණුව පිණිස වැඩ කරමු’ යන්න උද්යෝගය දනවන්නක් නොවේ ද?
මාර්තු 8වන දින, එනම් අද දින පටන් අප ලෝක බැංකුව‍ මගින් සමාරම්භය ලබන මෙම වැඩසටහන, රජය, අපගේ සංවර්ධන හවුල්කරුවන්, පුද්ගලික අංශය සහ මහජනතාව හා එක්ව, වසරක් මුළුල්ලේ කර්තව්‍යයන් ප‍ෙළ ගස්වමින් ශ්‍රී ලාංකීය කාන්තාව වෙත සැබැවින්ම ප්‍ර‍තිඵල හිමිකර ද‍ෙන්නේ ක‍ෙසේ දැයි විමසා බලන්න‍ෙමු.

කඩිනම් අවශ්‍යතාවය කුමක් ද?

සරලව ගත් කල, සේවා නියුක්තික කාන්තාවන් අංශයෙන් ශ්‍රී ලංකාව ගමන් කරන්නේ එහි සංවර්ධන කලාපයේ අන‍ෙකුත් රටවලට පසුපසිණි.

ශ්‍රී ලංකාවේ වයස අවුරුදු 15ට වැඩි කාන්තාවන් අතුරින් 214,298 ප්‍ර‍මාණයක් විරැකියාව‍ෙන් පසුවන බව ඔබ දන්නවා ද? පසුගිය දශක දෙක මුළුල්ලේ ශ්‍රී ලංකාවේ කාන්තා ශ්‍ර‍ම බලකා සහභාගීත්වය සියයට තිස් ගණන්වල පවතින්නේ ගණනය කර ඇති “ආර්ථික වශයෙන් අක්‍රීය“ මිලියන 7.3ක ජන සංඛ්‍යාවක් අතුරින් 73.8% ප්‍ර‍මාණයක් කාන්තාවන් බව වාර්තා වන පසුබිමක ය. පුරුෂයන් විෂයෙයහි එය යන්තමින් 26.2%ක අගයකි.

ඕනෑම එක් අමාත්‍යංශයකට, සංවර්ධන හවුල්කරුවකුට හෝ කලාපීය කාර්යාලයකට මෙය අභිමුඛ විය නොහැකි අභියෝගයක් බවට අටුවා ටීකා අනවශ්‍ය ය.

නමුත් ශ්‍රී ලාංකික කාන්තාවන් සේවයට එක් විය යුත්තේ ඇයි?

ඒ රටෙහි සෞභාග්‍යය ඒ මත පදනම් වන නිසා ය. ශ්‍රී ලංකාව පොහොසත් වීමට ප්‍ර‍ථමය‍ෙන් වියපත් වන රටකි. නිසි ශ්‍ර‍ම බලකායක් නොමැතිව රටට තරඟකාරී විය නොහැකි අතරම අපේක්ෂිත ආදායම ජනනය කිරීමට අවශ්‍ය මූලික සේවාවන් ලබා දීමට ද නොහැකි ය.

එසේ නම් ගැටළු වනුයේ, ශ්‍රී ලාංකික කාන්තාවන්ට ව‍ෙනසක් ළඟා කරලනු පිණිස කුමක් අවශ්‍ය වේ ද? අභියෝගයන් කවරේ ද? කාන්තාවන්ට ප්‍ර‍තිලාභ හිමි වන අන්දමේ ව‍ෙනසකට ශක්තියක් වීමට හැකියාව සහිතව උද්යෝගීමත්ව සිටින්නන්ට අපගේ සහය ලබා දිය හැක්කේ ක‍ෙසේ ද?

ලෝක බැංකුව, රජය, පුද්ගලික අංශය, සංවර්ධන හවුල්කරුවන්, සහ ශ්‍රී ලාංකික පුරවැසියන් සමග අත්වැල් බැඳ ගනිමින් මිහිපිට සත්‍යයට ආමන්ත්‍ර‍ණය ක‍ෙර‍ෙන සැබෑ ප්‍රාරම්භයන්ට සහය වීමට සූදානමින් පසු වෙයි. අපි පුළුල් ලෙස උපදෙස් සැපයීමට බලාපොරොත්තු වෙමු.

ඉතින්, වැදගත් දැනුම් දීම් කිහිපයකින් පටන් ගනිමු. අපට ඔබග‍ෙන් ඉගනගැනීමට අවශ්‍යව ඇත. කියන්න, අප ආරම්භ කළ යුත්තේ කොතැනින් ද සහ කවර සුවිශේෂී  කරුණු කෙරෙහි අවධානයක් යොමු කළ යුතු ද කියා. ඔබට ඇති අභියෝග මෙන්ම ඔබව වැඩි වශයෙන්ම දිරි ගැන්වූයේ කවුරුන් ද යන්නත් අපට දැන ගැනීමට අවශ්‍යව ඇත.
 

Sri Lanka at 70: Looking back and forward

Idah Z. Pswarayi-Riddihough's picture
A view from the Independence day parade.At 70, Sri Lanka has accomplished a lot in its seven decades as an independent nation.
A view from the 2018 Independence Day parade. At 70, Sri Lanka has accomplished a lot in its seven decades as an independent nation. Credit: World Bank

Like many Sri Lankans across the country, I joined Sri Lanka’s 70th Independence Day festivities earlier this month. This was undoubtedly a joyful moment, and proof of the country’s dynamism and stability. At 70, Sri Lanka has accomplished a lot in its seven decades as an independent nation.
 
The country’s social indicators, a measure of the well-being of individuals and communities, rank among the highest in South Asia and compare favorably with those in middle-income countries. In the last half-century, better healthcare for mothers and their children has reduced maternal and infant mortality to very low levels.
 
Sri Lanka’s achievements in education have also been impressive. Close to 95 percent of children now complete primary school with an equal proportion of girls and boys enrolled in primary education and a slightly higher number of girls than boys in secondary education.
 
The World Bank has been supporting Sri Lanka’s development for more than six decades. In 1954, our first project, Aberdeen-Laxapana Power Project, which financed the construction of a dam, a power station, and transmissions lines, was instrumental in helping the young nation meet its growing energy demands, boost its trade and develop light industries in Colombo, and provide much-needed power to tea factories and rubber plantations. In post-colonial Sri Lanka, this extensive electrical transmission and distribution project aimed to serve new and existing markets and improve a still fragile national economy.
 
Fast forward a few decades and Sri Lanka in 2018 is a far more prosperous and sophisticated country than it was in 1954 and, in many ways, has been a development success story. Yet, the island nation still faces some critical challenges as it strives to transition to another stage of its development and become a competitive upper middle-income country.
 
Notably, the current overreliance on the public-sector as the main engine for growth and investment, from infrastructure to healthcare, is reaching its limits.  With one of the world’s lowest tax to gross domestic product (GDP) ratios -- 12% in 2016, down from 24% in 1978 —Sri Lanka’s public sector is now facing serious budget constraints and the country needs to look for additional sources of finance to boost and sustain its growth.
 
As outlined in its Vision 2025, the current government has kickstarted an ambitious reform agenda to help the country move from a public investment to a more private investment growth model to enhance competitiveness and lift all Sri Lankans’ standards of living.
 
Now is the time to steer this vision into action. This is urgent as Sri Lanka is one of the world’s most protectionist countries and one of the hardest to start and run a business. As it happens, private foreign investment is much lower than in comparable economies and trade as a proportion of GDP has decreased from 88% in 2000 to 50% in 2016. Reversing this downward trend is critical for Sri Lanka to meet its development aspirations and overcome the risk of falling into a permanent “middle-income trap.”

د افغانستان راتلونکی نقشه کول، هرځل یو سړک

Walker Bradley's picture
Also available in: English | دری
Mapping Afghanistan’s future, one road at a time
اوپن سټريټ مپ د جغرافيايي معلوماتو يوه وړيا منبع ده چې د کارپوهو نقشه اخيستونکو يوې ډلې رامنځته کړې او فعاله يې ساتي.  انځور: ټایمني/نړیوال بانک

د ۲۰۱۷ کال په مې مياشت کې نړیوال بانک په افغانستان د خپلو فعاليتونو د بيا پيل ۱۵ مه کليزه ونمانځله. دا په داسې حال کې ده چې د دغو ۱۵ کلو په اوږدو کې نړیوال بانک افغان دولت ته اړينې مرستې برابرې کړي او دولت يې افغانانو ته د عامه خدمتونو رسولو جوګه کړی. په دې بهير کې مو له دولت سره په ګډه د روغتيا، پوهنې او زېربناوو په برخو کې ګڼې شمېرې او معلومات راټول کړي.

سره له دې چې په بېلابېلو سکتورونو کې معلومات په خوره وره او ګډه وډه بڼه په عام ډول د لاسرسي وړ دي، خو دا معلومات لا دومره نه دي چې له افغانانو او پراختيايي ملګرو سره د پروژو په طرحه او پاليسي جوړولو کې، چې کليدي ونډه لري، مرسته وکړي. د بېلګي په ډول: موږ په داسې حال کې چې د واکسينو د تطبيق او د نویو زېږېدلو کوچنیانو شمېرې لرو، د هغو سړکونو په اړه چې صحي مرکزونو ته ورغلي معلومات نه لرو. همدا راز، موږ ښايي په ښوونځيو کې د زده کوونکو د حاضرۍ او د هغو زده کوونکو چې په ازموينو کې کاميابېږي د شمېرو په اړه معلومات ولرو، خو په دې اړه چې زده کوونکي په څومره وخت کې ښوونځي ته رسېږي، کافي معلومات نلرو.

دا بېلګې روښانوي چې څنګه دقیق لومړني معلومات او شمېرې را سره د صحي مرکزونو او خدماتو په غځولو کې مرسته کوي او يا څنګه ښوونې ته لاسرسی پياوړی کولای شو. د هر کيلومتر سړک نقشه اخيستنه موږ ته راښوولای شي چې کوچنيان تر ښوونځي څومره پلي ځي‌، او يا يو ناروغ په څومره وخت کې تر روغتونه رسېږي. بې له شکه چې لومړنیو معلوماتو او شمېرو ته څرګنده اړتيا ليدل کېږي، چې په رڼا کې يې اړوند چارواکي په هر پاټکي کې له دې ګټه واخلي.

Mapping Afghanistan’s future, one road at a time

Walker Bradley's picture
Also available in: دری | پښتو
Mapping Afghanistan’s future, one road at a time
OpenStreetMap is an open source geospatial data portal built and maintained by a community of mappers. Photo Credit: Taimani Films/ World Bank


In May 2017, the World Bank celebrated its 15 years of reengagement in Afghanistan. Since reengagement, we have helped the government deliver public services to its citizens and, in the process, accumulated a wealth of data on many sectors from health and education to infrastructure.

However, publicly available base data used across sectors – also called ‘foundation’ data-- is still lacking. As it happens, that information is important to design projects and inform policies.

Case in point: while we may have data on vaccines given or babies born, we don’t know much about the roads that lead to the clinic. Similarly, we may get data on school attendance and passing rates of students, but we don’t know how long it takes for students to reach their schools.

These examples highlight how foundation data can help better plan the expansion of healthcare facilities or enhance access to education. After all, each mapped kilometer of a road can help us understand how long Afghan children must walk to get to school or how long it takes sick Afghans to reach a hospital.

Without question, there is a clear need for better foundation data to inform decision making at all levels.

اهمیت نقشه برداری برای اینده افغانستان، اما یک سرک در یک وقت

Walker Bradley's picture
Also available in: English | پښتو
Mapping Afghanistan’s future, one road at a time
اوپن ستريت مپ يک منبع رایگان معلومات جغرافيايی است که توسط یک گروهی از متخصصان  نقشه برداری بميان آمده و فعالیت می نماید. عکس: تایمنی فلم/ بانک جهانی

بانک جهانی در ماه می سال ۲۰۱۷، از پانزدهمین  سالگرد از سرگیری فعالیت هایش در افغانستان تجليل نمود.  این در حالیست که طی این ۱۵ سال گذشته بانک جهانی حمایت لازم را برای دولت افغانستان غرض فراهم آوری خدمات عامه به افغانها فراهم نموده است. در اين فرایند، مشترکاً با دولت افغانستان ما توانستیم معلومات و آمار بسیاری را در بخش های صحت، معارف و هم چنان زیربنا ها جمع آوری نمايیم.

با آنکه معلومات در عرصه های مختلف بصورت پراگنده و غیر هماهنگ در دسترس عام قرار دارد اما این معلومات هنوز هم کافی نیست تا افغانها و همکاران انکشافی را در طرح ریزی برنامه ها و تدوین پاليسی ها که نقش کلیدی دارند، کمک نماید. به طور مثال ما در حاليکه آمار تطبيق واکسين و اطفال نوزاد را داريم، اما در مورد سرک ها ییکه به مراکز صحی منتهی میشوند آگاهی نداریم. به همین ترتیب، ممکن است در رابطه به میزان حاضری شاگردان در مکاتب و شاگردانيکه در امتحانات کامياب ميشوند بدانیم، اما  در مورد اینکه آیا چه زمانی را در برمیگیرد، تا شاگردان به مکتب برسند، معلومات کافی در دست نداريم.

این مثال ها نشان دهنده این است که چگونه  معلومات و آمار اساسی و دقیق ميتواند در گسترش پلانگذاری تسهيلات و خدمات صحی کمک نماید  و يا هم چگونه میتوانیم با دسترسی به این آمار دسترسی معارف را تقويت بخشیم. در نهایت امر، نقشه برداری هرکيلومتر سرک به ما کمک مينماید، تا بدانیم که اطفال بعد از طی چه مصافتی به مکتب میرسند، یا چه زمانی نیاز است، تا یک بیمار به شفاخانه برسد. بدون شک، دسترسی به آمار اساسی و دقیق یک نياز شمرده می شود، تا در روشنی آن مسوولین ذیربط در تمام سطوح از آن استفاده نمایند. 

Incentives for cleaner cities in Nepal

Charis Lypiridis's picture
The "orange city" of Dhankuta, Nepal. Photo: World Bank
The "orange city" of Dhankuta, Nepal. Photo: World Bank


Cities across Nepal—and in the developing world—produce more waste than ever before, due to a spike in population and a surge in new economic activity and urbanization. Properly disposing and managing solid waste has thus become urgent for city municipalities.

Although collecting, storing, and recycling solid waste can represent up to 50 percent of a municipality’s annual budget, many local governments don’t collect enough revenue from waste management services to cover these costs.

As a result, landscapes and public spaces in Nepal’s urban centers are deteriorating. Less than half of the 700,000 tons of waste generated in Nepal’s cities each year is collected. Most waste is dumped without any regulation or oversight and several municipalities do not have a designated disposal site, leading to haphazard disposal of waste—often next to a river—further aggrevating the problem.

With urbanization rising, the costs of inaction are piling up and compromising people’s health and the environment. In most cases, the poor suffer the most from the resulting negative economic, environmental, and human health impacts.

Rebuilding houses and livelihoods in post-earthquake Nepal

Mio Takada's picture
When the 2015 earthquake hit Nepal, Fulmati Mijar lost her home and livelihood. Now, she has turned her life around, learned carpentry and quake-resistant techniques, and started a business
When the 2015 earthquake hit Nepal, Fulmati Mijar lost her home and livelihood. Now, she has turned her life around, learned carpentry and quake-resistant techniques, and started a business. Credit: World Bank.

 
Fulmati Mijar, a mother of three living in Nuwakot district in Nepal, used to earn her living from daily wage labor along with her husband.
 
On April 25, 2015, their lives took a turn for the worse when a magnitude 7.8 earthquake struck Nepal, killing 8,790 people and affecting 8 million more—or nearly a third of the country’s population.
 
The catastrophe destroyed Fulmati’s house and made her family more vulnerable.
 
Yet, it did not dent her resolve.
 
When housing reconstruction started through the Earthquake Housing Reconstruction Project (EHRP), Fulmari joined her village’s Community Organization (CO), supported by the Poverty Alleviation Fund (PAF) and learned carpentry and earthquake-resistant techniques for housing reconstruction.
 
She initially received a NPR18,000 ($176) loan to invest in a small furniture enterprise. With the funds, her family started making windows, doors, and kitchen racks, which were in high demand. After repaying the loan, she received another loan to upgrade their furniture enterprise, where today she and her family make their living.
 
At the time of the 2015 earthquake, full recovery was estimated to cost $8.2 billion, with the housing recovery component amounting to $3.8 billion. The World Bank immediately pledged $500 million to support the emergency response. During the reconstruction phase, the most urgent—and largest—need was to rebuild nearly 750,000 houses.
 
More than two years since the earthquake, restoring lost or affected livelihoods has become more important.

The quest for a well-resourced holiday meal

Idah Z. Pswarayi-Riddihough's picture



Holidays for me have always been about family and food. A time to relax, catch-up with loved ones and eat good food.  When it’s our turn to cook, my husband and I take time to plan the menu. A central part of our meals are vegetables and fresh fruits but we have also learnt over the years that a good meal needs fresh ingredients, all procured as close to the preparation of the meal as possible. 
 
Sri Lanka has not disappointed in its array of fruits and vegetables. I am still discovering the names of many; some of which I will never be able to pronounce for sure. Despite that, I love eating them! 
 
Amongst my favourites are papaya, mangoes and kankun, the last for which I share a passion with my two pet turtles. But getting these vegetables and fruits from the same supplier on a constant basis is a challenge. Even common produce like onions, tomatoes, and cucumbers can be discoloured or squishy – not at all appetizing or conducive for a salad or other such type of fresh dish.
 
The price, of course, is the same whatever the quality. Fresh produce can be expensive, and regularly buying a variety of fruits and vegetables does strain the budgets of many families in Sri Lanka. Needless to say, this shouldn’t be the case in a country with such rich soils and plentiful sunshine.  
 
The question of access to fresh and healthy food goes beyond our holiday tables. According to the World Health Organisation, 1 in 5 premature deaths in Sri Lanka are due to a non-communicable disease (NCD) such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease or cancer.[1] Tobacco use, unhealthy diets, harmful use of alcohol and physical inactivity have all been identified as risk factors.

Building safer houses in Northern India

Hyunjee Oh's picture
The State of Uttarakhand is endowed with vast natural resources, and is one of the most frequented pilgrimage/ tourist destinations in India. However, the State also has a very fragile terrain that is also highly prone to earthquakes.
The State of Uttarakhand is endowed with vast natural resources, and is one of the most frequented pilgrimage and tourist destinations in India. However, the State also has a very fragile terrain that is also highly prone to earthquakes. Credit: GFDRR/ World Bank
This blog is part of a series exploring the housing reconstruction progress in Uttarakhand, India.
 
In June 2013, a heavy deluge caused devastating floods and landslides in the state of Uttarakhand located in the Himalayan foothills. The disaster – the worst in the country since the 2003 tsunami—hit more than 4,200 villages, damaged 2,500 houses, and killed 4,000 people.
 
Since 2013, the Government of Uttarakhand with support from the World Bank and the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR) has helped the people of Uttarakhand restore their homes, build better roads, and better manage future disaster risks through the Uttarakhand Disaster Recovery Project (UDRP).
 
Central to the project is rebuilding 2,382 houses that are more resilient to disasters. The project has promoted an owner-driven housing reconstruction model, whereby beneficiaries rebuild their houses on their own with technical and social support from a local NGO, using guidelines issued by the project for disaster resilient housing.
 
Watch how we’ve helped build safer houses for the people in Uttarakhand:
 
Building Safer Houses in Northern India

 

Addressing violence against women in Pakistan: time to act now

Uzma Quresh's picture
Pakistan women gbv
The time is right to act on this issue in Pakistan. If we do not address violence against women and girls, sustainable growth will remain elusive.

Almost one in three married Pakistani women report facing physical violence from their husbands. The informal estimates are much higher. Such violence is not only widespread, it is also normalized. According to Bureau of Statistics, more than half of the women respondents in one province believe that it is ok for a husband to beat his wife under certain circumstances; and these attitudes are not much different in the rest of the country.
 
This violence also has serious implications on economic growth. Only 22% of women are formally reported to participate in the Pakistani workforce. Yet working is often not a choice and comes with risks.

This means some women face the risk of being sexually harassed, and assaulted by men outside their home if they choose to work. However, studies indicate that some women may also face violence within their households because of perceived dishonor and a threat to masculinity when they work outside the home. Intimate partner violence is expensive, in terms of medical cost, and missed days of work. However, what is harder to cost for is the psychological trauma due to violence that prevents women from achieving their full potential.

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