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Social Development

Why am I excited for the next digital youth summit?

Anna O'Donnell's picture
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This year, perhaps even more than in previous years, I am very excited to come to DYS for two main reasons.

First, since its inception in 2014, the Digital Youth Summit has become one of the premier technology conferences in Pakistan. Back in 2014, we got some skeptical responses to the idea of holding a tech conference in Peshawar. National speakers were hesitant to make the trip to Peshawar. Security restriction on international travel were in place for KP up to a week before the event. Several international speakers dropped out because of difficulties getting visas.

But in 2014, the first Digital Youth Summit came on the tech scene, redefining Khyber Pakhtunkhwa as an emerging digital economy. The event brought together local and international participants (some attending their sessions by videoconference) to deliberate on supporting the growth of nascent ecosystems. Local youth showed up, curious about how the internet is shaping jobs of the future. I met one young woman who had traveled on an overnight bus with her child and sister just to learn more about what it means to work online. She told me excitedly that she could not wait to begin her new internet based career. And for the international speakers who made it, the hospitality and warmth of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa reshaped their views of Pakistan.

Fast forward three years to DYS 2017. DYS has become an established event in Pakistan’s tech community. It has provided an international platform to showcase the vibrancy and enthusiasm of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa as it embraces the digital economy. And while it continues to identify with its core objective—to raise awareness among youth—it has also become a platform for Pakistan’s tech community to deliberate the growth of tech entrepreneurship, the future of digital payments, and how to promote Pakistan’s digital transformation. The commitment and presence of the Government, as well as participation of a wide range of international experts, complements each panel discussion. But it is the enthusiasm and excitement of the youth that gives the event its signature energy and vibrancy.

Happy New Year! In Sri Lanka, a time to celebrate many things – and to think

Idah Z. Pswarayi-Riddihough's picture
 Joe Qian / World Bank
A group of women in a Sri Lanka Estate. Credit: Joe Qian / World Bank

Happy New Year to all our Sri Lankan friends and colleagues celebrating the Sinhala and Tamil New Year this month; and Happy Easter to those celebrating it.

This is my first opportunity to celebrate these various holidays in my adopted country. I love the energy, the buzz of excitement everywhere and the decorations coming up in many of the commercial districts. I have been asking so many questions about the importance of the New Year holiday; and at the same time enjoying the preparations for the festivities, the anticipation of the big day as well as the serious messages.

I have learnt that the Sinhala and Tamil New Year, also known as 'Aluth Avurudda' (in Sinhala) and 'Puthandu' (in Tamil) is very important to all Sri Lankans and it celebrates the traditional Lunar New Year. It is celebrated by most Sri Lankans – a point of Unity and a Joyful occasion.

Even more importantly the holiday coincides with the New Year celebrations of many traditional calendars of South and South East Asia – a regional point of unity! Above all, this is also known as the month of prosperity.

So what does the holiday mean to you as a Sri Lankan, or maybe you are someone like me who may not be Sri Lankan but loves the country and its people?    

At the World Bank Group, promoting shared prosperity and increasing the incomes of the poorest 40 percent of people in every country we work in is part of our mission. The first goal is to end extreme poverty or reduce the share of the global population that lives in extreme poverty to 3 percent by 2030.

څوک ښوونځي ته ځي؟ ولايتي لنډيزونه موږ ته د لومړني ښوونځيو د حاضرۍ کچه په ډاګه کوي

Christina Wieser's picture
Also available in: English
Student in a classroom in Afghanistan.
Students in a classroom in Bamyan Province. Photo Credit: Taimani Films/ World Bank

افغانستان له یو لړ ننګونو لکه بېوزلۍ، نه پرمختګ او نا امنۍ سره لاس او ګرېوان دی. دا د حیرانتیا خبره نه ده، چې تاوتریخوالي او جګړې د هېواد پر اقتصاد او د خلکو پر سوکالۍ ژوره اغېزه کړې ده خو افغانستان د پرمختيا هيله لري لکه تر ۲۰۳۰ پورې په لومړنيو ښوونځيو کې د جنسیت برابري.

د دې لپاره چې ډاډه شو افغانستان خپلو موخو ته رسېږي، مهمه دا ده د هېواد پر ټولنيز او اقتصادي پرمختګ پوه شو.

د افغانستان د اسلامي جمهوریت د اقتصاد وزارت په همکارۍ او د مرکزي احصايې ادارې د اطلاعاتو پر اساس، نړیوال بانک په دې وروستيو کې د ولايتي لنډیزونو درېیمه ګڼه په پښتو او دري دواړو ژبو خپره کړې، چې په ټولنیزو او اقتصادي شاخصونو کې هر اړخیز پرمختګ (د زده کړو په ګډون هم په ملي او هم د ولايتونو په کچه) څرګندوي.

دا څه په ډاګه کوي؟ موږ وینو چې افغانستان د بشري انکشاف په برخه کې په زړه پورې پایلې لري؛ لکه ښوونه او روزنه، روغتيا، او اساسي خدمتونو ته لاسرسی، خو افغانان په ټولیزه توګه دغو پرمختګونو ته، چې په بېلابېلو ولايتونو کې ژوند کوي، مساوي لاسرسی نه لري. په حقیقت کې ټولنيزې او اقتصادي پایلې د افغاني کورنیو پر ژوند ژور اغېز لري.

لنډیزونه ښيي چې نجونې په ځانګړې توګه په لومړني ښوونځي کې د شاملېدو په وخت له ننګونو سره مخ کېږي خو په هغو ځایونو کې، چې هغوی ښوونځي ته ځي، زده کوونکي خوښ وي چې خپلو اهدافو ته رسېږي. د دریچه نور ښوونځي زده کوونکې مسعودې نبي وویل: ((د نجونو او هلکانو تر منځ توپير باید نه وي، زه نه ډارېږم، زه خوشحاله یم، چې ښوونځي ته راغلې يم، زه غواړم، چې یوه انجینره شم.))

له بده مرغه ټولې نجونې د مسعودې په شان ښوونځي ته د تګ فرصت نه لري، موږ په ښوونځي کې د هلکانو او نجونو تر منځ په حاضرۍ کې د لوی توپیر شاهد یو. په افغانستان کې د نجونو او هلکانو د حاضرۍ کچه، د لومړني ښوونځي د ۲۰۰۷ او ۲۰۰۸ په پرتله په ۲۰۱۱ او ۲۰۱۲ کې لوړه شوه خو د ۲۰۱۱ او ۲۰۱۲ په پرتله په ۲۰۱۳ او ۲۰۱۴ کې ټیټه شوه. په منځني ډول په ۲۰۱۳ او ۲۰۱۴ کې د هرو درېیو هلکانو په مقابل کې یوازې دوه افغان نجونې لومړني ښوونځي کې شاملې شوې. لا تر اوسه په لومړنيو ښوونځيو د جندر برابري نه ده رامنځته شوې، په داسې حال کې، چې ډېری نجونې له زده کړو بې برخې دي.

نو پوښتنه دا ده، چې موږ باید د نجونو د زده کړو په برخه کې په کومو ځایونو کې پانګونه وکړو، تر څو د جندر برابرۍ ته ورسېږو؟ د دې ځواب به يوازې په ملي کچه د اطلاعاتو په ورکولو سره کافي نه وي، موږ باید د افغانستان له ولايتونو څخه اطلاعات ولرو، څو وشو کولی په دې برخه کې پرمختګ اندازه کړو.

لنډیز، له ۲۰۰۷ کال راهیسې په هر ولايت کې پرمختګ ښيي، موږ ته اجازه راکوي، چې په لومړني ښوونځي کې د حاضرۍ توپیر له احتماله ارزونه وکړو.

په ډېری ولایتونو کې (۱۸ د ۳۴ څخه) کوم پرمختګ چې موږ له ۲۰۰۷ - ۲۰۰۸ څخه تر ۲۰۱۳ - ۲۰۱۴ کلونو پورې وليد، بسنه نه کوي، څو تر ۲۰۳۰ پورې په لومړنيو ښوونځيو د جنسیت توپیر له منځه یوسو.

که څه هم ځيني ولايتونو شته، چې موږ ته هيله راکوي؛ په دایکنډي او هرات ولایتونو کې د هلکانو په پرتله ډېرې نجونې په ۲۰۱۳- ۲۰۱۴ کلونو کې لومړني ښوونځيو کې شاملې شوې. سربېره پر دې  اووه ولايتونه به په راتلونکو پنځو کلونو کې د هغو د پرمختګ په اوسنۍ کچه به په لومړنیو ښوونځیو کې د جندر برابري ترلاسه کړي.

سرپل کې د ۲۰۰۷- ۲۰۰۸ په پرتله په ۲۰۱۳- ۲۰۱۴ کلونو کې په لومړني ښوونځيو کې د هلکانو د حاضرۍ په نسبت د نجونو په حاضرۍ کې فوق العاده پرمختګ راغی. سرپل کې به په دې کچه پرمختګ وکولی شي د یو کال په موده کې په لومړنیو ښوونځيو کې د جنسیت توپیر له منځه يوسي.

Who goes to school? Here’s what Afghanistan’s Provincial Briefs tell us about primary school attendance

Christina Wieser's picture
Also available in: پښتو
Student in a classroom in Afghanistan.
Students in a classroom in Bamyan Province. Photo Credit: Taimani Films/ World Bank

Afghanistan grapples with a range of challenges from growing insecurity to stagnating growth and rising levels of poverty. It is no surprise that the impact of the violent conflict on the country’s economic prospects and the welfare of its people is profound. Yet, Afghanistan carries ambitious development goals including achieving gender parity in primary schooling by 2030 among others. To ensure Afghanistan meets its goals, it is important to know how the country has progressed on socio-economic outcomes.  

In collaboration with the Ministry of Economy of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan and based on data provided by the Central Statistics Organization, the World Bank recently published the third edition of the Provincial Briefs (also available in Dari and Pashto), which provides a comprehensive profile of the most recent progress on a set of socio-economic indicators including education both at the national and at the provincial levels[1].

What do they reveal? We can see Afghanistan has achieved impressive improvements in human development outcomes—in areas such as education, health, and access to basic services. But this overall progress has not benefitted everyone equally and gaps in access between Afghans living in different provinces persist. In fact, where Afghan families live matters greatly for their socio-economic outcomes. And when it comes to schooling, this is no different. Location determines whether children will go to school or not.

The Hills are Alive: Credit, Livelihood and Micro-enterprises Empower Women’s Groups in North-East India

Mohini Datt's picture
India’s North-East Region (NER) – comprising ‘the seven sister’ states plus the small state of Sikkim - is a uniquely rich and complex tapestry of social, cultural, natural resource and biological diversity. This remote region, of poor connectivity but with an eager and literate workforce[1], is increasingly being transformed into a key frontier under India’s ‘Act East’ policy and its NER Vision 2020 . The World Bank supported North-East Rural Livelihoods Project (NERLP) is working with nearly 23,000 women’s Self-Help Groups (SHGs) in Sikkim, Nagaland, Mizoram and Tripura. It is steadily adding value to the region’s labor pool – scoping out economic opportunities for the poorest of the poor, training the young workforce in the skills they are hungry for, seeding SHGs, providing them credit, and enabling them to set up new enterprises and improve their socioeconomic status.   

An Eggless Bakery in Sikkim

Tucked away behind the monastery at the popular Buddha Park, on one of South Sikkim’s many serene hilltops, stands the eggless Tatagatha Bakery. The bakery is run by a Self-Help Group of local village women with funding through a microcredit program supported by the NERLP. A bakery is an unusual, innovative idea for microcredit, but the Buddha Park attracts many pilgrims, and the bakery is always in demand.  Going eggless and dairy free has meant it can better cater to its core clientele of monks, pilgrims and visitors; it has also reduced the need to transport perishable supplies up the steep hilltop.

The project team mobilized a veteran baker from the rail head town of Siliguri to train the local women initially.  The project ran into teething problems early on: a single SHG was rallied, but not all members were equally committed, which saw high dropouts after training. The team changed tack, and elicited individual interest regardless of membership.  Twenty women have now been trained. Uptake by SHGs has undoubtedly been gradual, but it is early days yet – the bakery only opened in May 2016.  These women see the bakery’s potential and are willing to bet on its success, accepting lower wages for now.  
Tatagatha bakery was recognized by the South District Zilla Panchayat as an excellent sustainable but profitable venture, run with good business acumen.

What does it take for a woman in rural Bangladesh to break out of poverty?

Naila Kabeer's picture
Hafiza Begum
Women in rural Bangladesh have made great strides in breaking through employment barriers in areas such as agriculture and garment manufacturing. However, their contributions are not always recorded and there remain spaces such as rural markets that are male-dominated. How can these challenges be addressed? Photo Credit: Lupita Huq 

How does a poor woman in rural Bangladesh make use of her business acumen if she lacks education, lacks opportunities to learn new skills, no assets of her own, a husband who earns just enough for the family to survive from day to day, children to look after and a society that had traditionally disapproved of women working outside the home? 
The story of Hafiza Begum offers one answer. We interviewed her as part of our on-going research in Bangladesh, which sets out to understand its female labor force participation rates. This phenomenon of lower than expected female labor force participation appears to characterize the wider South Asia and MENA regions, despite their positive growth rates. What are some of the reasons? 
Hafiza was born into a family too poor to educate her and she was married off at an early age. Her husband worked for daily wages wherever he could find it. Their two young daughters went to school in the local madrassa because it was free. She emerged from our interview as a woman who was determined, within the social norms of her society, to combine caring for her family with finding the resources she needed to build up her own business.
She told her husband early in their marriage how she planned to do this. “Suppose you buy me a kilogram of onions to cook our meals with. If I use 2 onions in a meal, you won’t be able to tell. Even if I use half an onion for a meal, you still won’t be any the wiser. Yet if I use just half an onion every time I cook, our supply of onions will last longer and we will save money.”
This thrifty attitude had been the hallmark of her housekeeping throughout her marriage. She boasted to us that when her husband recently went away to work in a brickfield, she managed to save Rs.400 out of the Rs.500 he gave her to run the house. How did she do it? She went to the marshes near their house to catch fish, keeping some to eat and selling the rest to her neighbors. She supplemented the vegetables she planted on their homestead plot with edible greens that grew wild near their house. She spent money only on what she could not produce herself. 

The Citizens’ Charter—a Commitment toward Service Delivery across Afghanistan

Ahmad Shaheer Shahriar's picture
Citizens charter launch in presidential palace
Inaguration of the Citizens’ Charter Afghanistan Project (CCAP) on 25th September, 2016 was attented by the President, the Chief Executive of Afghanistan, cabinet ministers, and over 400 representatives from the donor community, international organizations, and Community Development Councils (CDCs) from all 34 provinces of the country. Photo Credit: Rumi Consultancy / World Bank

Will rural communities in Afghanistan be deprived of development services upon the completion of the National Solidarity Programme (NSP) in the Ministry of Rural Rehabilitation and Development (MRRD)?
What will happen to the Community Development Councils (CDCs) established in rural communities to execute people’s development decisions and priorities?
Will our country continue to witness reconstruction of civic infrastructure?
These were some of the questions that troubled thousands of villagers as the NSP neared its formal closure date - NSP had delivered development services in every province of Afghanistan for 14 years.
To address these questions and allay their concerns, the Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan formally launched the Citizens’ Charter Program on September 25, 2016 to sustain the uninterrupted development and reconstruction in Afghanistan.

Empowering a New Generation of Female Entrepreneurs in Afghanistan

Mabruk Kabir's picture
Photo Credit: Mabruk Kabir / World Bank

Fatima brimmed with optimism. The 19-year-old recently established a poultry enterprise with the support of a micro-grant, and was thrilled at the prospect of financial independence.

“After my family moved from Pakistan, I had few options for work,” she said from her home in the Paghman district in the outskirts of Kabul. “The grant not only allowed me to start my own poultry business, but let me work from my own home.”

With over half the population under the age of 15, Afghanistan stands on the cusp of a demographic dividend. To reach their full potential, Afghanistan’s youth need to be engaged in meaningful work – enabling young people to support themselves, but also contribute to the prosperity of their families and communities.

Women can play a greater role in realizing South Asia’s potential

Annette Dixon's picture
Mumbai Train
The suburban train system in Mumbai is used by millions of women and men everyday, who rely on safe transport to access education and job opportunities. 

Last week, I took a journey on Mumbai’s suburban train system, which carries a staggering 8 million women and men, equivalent to the entire population of Switzerland, every day to where they live, work, and spend time with family and friends. Although stretched, the system has reduced mobility constraints and increased independence for millions of women who rely on safe transport to access education and job opportunities; contributing to the city’s dynamism and growth. There are similarly inspiring examples from all countries in South Asia.

As we mark International Women’s Day, we celebrate the progress made in improving women’s inclusion and empowerment, while seeking to better address continuing challenges, which are estimated to cost South Asian economies $888 billion, through devising and implementing solutions that will bridge remaining gaps.

Much to be proud of­a lot more remains to be done

South Asian countries have seen encouraging increases in greater access and gender parity in education. At the same time, the region has achieved substantial decreases in maternal and child mortality. Countries have made great strides in healthcare access through training more female healthcare workers while providing affordable care for mothers and children. The region also boasts many inspiring female leaders and role models, as well as the countless individuals positively contributing to their communities and societies against difficult odds. 

However, much more needs to be done in order to nurture all women and men to realize their potential. As South Asian countries become more prosperous, their growth trajectory will be less assured if hundreds of millions of women remain excluded from education and employment opportunities. South Asian countries will need to substantially expand their workforce in order to meet their economic growth goals and, at the same time, adequately support their increasingly large populations. Studies show that only around 1 out of 4 women in South Asia participate in the labor force, about half of what is typical in middle-income countries in other regions. Too many women face restrictions in decision-making, mobility, public safety; and far too many experience gender-based violence—the most egregious cases making headlines around the world. What can help bridge these gaps?

The long road to gender equality in Nepal

Richa Bhattarai's picture
The Government of Nepal is working to incorporate gender equality in all its development policies and programs. Credit: Bijay Gajmer/World Bank

Today marks International Women’s Day throughout the world. Here in Nepal, it is a joyful tribute to the fact that the country boasts three women holding key leadership positions in the country – Bidhya Devi Bhandari as President, Sushila Karki as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, and Onsari Gharti Magar as Speaker of the Parliament.

All three are the first women to hold their respective posts, and the Chief Justice, especially, has been lauded as a bold and independent decision-maker.

The Constitution of Nepal 2015 has been a huge improvement from the days of yore:  Article 43 deals with the rights of women that include rights to lineage, right to safe maternity and reproduction, right against all forms of exploitation, and equal rights in family matters and property.

The Government of Nepal is also working to incorporate gender equality in all development policies and programs, including developing a gender responsive budget system.

We also have excellent examples of women making great leaps in almost all fields – science, economics, banking and finance, media, environment, education, public health, social service and development.

And in a heartening move, Chhaupadi, an inhuman practice that imposes upon women to stay outside their homes in unhygienic cow sheds during menstruation and childbirth, is set to be criminalized in the new legal code.

However, progress made in specific fields has not yet contributed to the overall improvement in girls’ and women’s lives across the country. Similarly, plans and policies do not always spur positive changes in reality.